Best Visual Artists of All Time – Chronological

To create this list, I took every visual artist (with the exception of feature filmmakers) from best visual arts, architecture, and photography lists as well as the lists of best visual artists, contemporary artists, architects and photographers, and arranged them in chronological order by the artist’s date of birth (estimated in some cases). I then listed the paintings, sculptures, buildings, photographs or other works of art associated with that artist on the various lists. I have also provided the locations for items housed or located in the real world (i.e., outside museum collections).

Thutmose (Ancient Egypt, c. 1380-c. 1320 BCE) sculptor
Bust of Queen Nefertiti (attrib.) (c. 1345 BCE)

Bust of Queen Nefertiti.

Bust of Queen Nefertiti.

Euxitheos (Ancient Greece, c. 550-c.490 BCE) potter
Euphronios Krater (Sarpedon Krater) (c. 515 BCE)

Euphronios Krater.

Euphronios Krater.

Euphronios (Ancient Greece, c. 535-after 470 BCE) painter
Euphronios Krater (Sarpedon Krater) (c. 515 BCE)

The Euphronios krater.

The Euphronios krater.

Kritios (Ancient Greece, c. 520-c. 460 BCE) sculptor
Kritios Boy (attrib.) (c. 480 BCE)

The Kritos Boy.

The Kritos Boy.

Myron (Ancient Greece, c. 510-c. 440 BCE) sculptor
Discobolus (The Discus Thrower) (c. 460-450 BCE) (original is lost)

A Roman marble copy of Myron's lost Discobolus.

A Roman marble copy of Myron’s lost Discobolus.

Polykleitos (Ancient Greece, 5th Century BCE) sculptor
Doryphoros (The Spear Bearer) (c. 450-440 BCE)

Doryphorus.

Phidias (Ancient Greece, c. 480-430 BCE) sculptor
Athena Parthenos (c. 447-440 BCE) (original is lost)
Parthenon Frieze (c. 443-438 BCE)

The Varvakeion Athena is a miniature copy of the 38-foot original, made in the 3rd Century CE and now at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

The Varvakeion Athena is a much-reduced marble copy of Phidias’s 38-foot original. It was made in Rome the 2rd Century CE.  It is now at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

Ictinus (Ancient Greece, c. 480-c. 420 BCE) architect
Parthenon. Athens (477-432 BCE) (with Callicrates)

The Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.

The Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.

Callicrates (Ancient Greece, c. 480-c. 420 BCE) architect
Parthenon. Athens (477-432 BCE) (with Ictinus)

The interior of the Parthenon.

The interior of the Parthenon.

Mnesikles (Ancient Greece, c. 460-c. 400 BCE) architect
Erechtheion (Temple of Erechtheum). Athens (c. 421-405 BCE)

The Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens.

The Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens.

Timotheus (Ancient Greece, c. 400-c. 340 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE) (with Leochares, Scopas of Paros and Bryaxis)

A portion of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Helicarnassus.

A portion of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Helicarnassus, which shows the legendary battle between the Greeks and the female Amazon warriors.

Praxiteles (Ancient Greece, c. 390-c. 320 BCE) sculptor
Hermes and the Infant Dionysus (attrib.) (c. 350-330 BCE)
Aphrodite of Knidos (Venus Pudica) (c. 350-330 BCE) (original is lost)

The Venus Colonna, in the Vatican Museums, is considered the most faithful Roman copy of the lost Greek original.

The Venus Colonna, in the Vatican Museums, is considered the most faithful Roman copy of the lost Greek original.

Lysippos (Ancient Greece, c. 390-310 BCE) sculptor
Farnese Herakles (Farnese Hercules) (c. 370-310 BCE) (original is lost)

The Farnese Hercules.

The Farnese Hercules.

Leochares (Ancient Greece, c.370-c.310 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE) (with Timotheus, Scopas of Paros and Bryaxis)
Apollo Belvedere (Pythian Apollo) (c. 350-320 BCE) (original is lost)

The Apollo Belvedere is a 2nd Century CE Roman marble copy of Leochares' lost bronze original.

The Apollo Belvedere is a 2nd Century CE Roman marble copy of Leochares’ lost bronze original.

Bryaxis (Ancient Greece, c. 370-c. 310 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE) (with Timotheus, Scopas of Paros and Leochares)

A portion of the Amazon Frieze.

A portion of the Amazon Frieze, or Amazonomachy, carved on the tomb of a Persian satrap in Asia Minor.

Scopas of Paros (Ancient Greece, c. 370-c. 310 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE) (with Timotheus, Leochares and Bryaxis)

A portion of the Amazon Frieze.

A portion of the Amazon Frieze, carved in high relief by Scopas of Paros and other Greek artists.

Alexandros of Antioch (Ancient Greece, c. 150-c. 70 BCE) sculptor
Venus de Milo (Aphrodite of Milos) (c. 130-100 BCE)

Venus de Milo is an original Greek marble statue from the Hellenistic period.

Venus de Milo is an original Greek marble statue from the Hellenistic period.

Agesander of Rhodes (Ancient Greece, c. 60 BCE-c. 10 CE) sculptor
Laocoön and His Sons (Laocoön) (c. 42-19 BCE) (with Polydoros and Athenodoros)

According to Pliny the Elder, he saw Laocoön and His Sons at the palace of Roman Emperor Titus in the 1st Century CE.

According to Pliny the Elder, he saw Laocoön and His Sons at the palace of Roman Emperor Titus in the 1st Century CE.

Polydorus (Ancient Greece, c. 50 BCE-c. 20 CE) sculptor
Laocoön and His Sons (Laocoön) (c. 42-19 BCE) (with Aegesander of Rhodes and Athenodoros)

Detail of Laocoön and His Sons, showing one of the sons. Some scholars believe the statue is a copy of a lost Greek bronze original.

Detail of Laocoön and His Sons, showing one of the sons. Some scholars believe the statue is a copy of a lost Greek bronze original.

Athenodoros (Ancient Greece, c. 40 BCE-c. 30 CE) sculptor
Laocoön and His Sons (Laocoön) (c. 42-19 BCE) (with Aegesander of Rhodes and Polydoros)

An oblique-angle view of Laocoön_and_His_Sons, which was rediscovered in Rome in 1506 and is now on display in the Vatican Museums.

An oblique-angle view of Laocoön and His Sons, which was rediscovered in Rome in 1506 and is now on display in the Vatican Museums.

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio) (Ancient Rome, 80-70 BCE – after 15 BCE) architect
Basilica di Fano. Fano, Italy (19 BCE) (destroyed)

A hypothetical reconstruction of the Basilica di Fano, based on Vitruvius's description.

A hypothetical reconstruction of the Basilica di Fano, based on Vitruvius’s description.

Apollodorus of Damascus (Ancient Rome, c. 150-c. 90 BCE) sculptor
Trajan’s Column. Rome (attrib.) (113 CE)

Detail of some of the sculpted reliefs on Trajan's Column.

Detail of some of the sculpted reliefs on Trajan’s Column.

Glykon (Greece, c. 250-c. 210 CE) sculptor
Farnese Hercules (c. 216-218 CE) (Roman marble copy of original Greek bronze by Lysippos)

A rear view of the Farnese Hercules shows the Hesperidean apples that Hercules stole in his 11th Labor.

A rear view of the Farnese Hercules shows the Hesperidean apples that Hercules stole in his 11th Labor.

Isidore of Miletus (Byzantine Greece, c. 480-c. 550 CE) scientist, architect
Hagia Sophia. Istanbul (532-537 CE) (with Anthemisu of Tralles)

An interior view of Hagia Sophia, which began as a Christian church, became a Muslim holy place and is now a Turkish national monument.

An interior view of Hagia Sophia, which began as a Christian church, became a Muslim holy place and is now a Turkish national monument.

Anthemius of Tralles (Byzantine Greece, c. 474-before 558 CE) mathematician, architect
Hagia Sophia. Istanbul (532-537 CE) (with Isodore of Miletus)

The exterior of Hagia Sophia. The minarets were added after the Muslims conquered Constantinople in 1452.

The exterior of Hagia Sophia. The minarets were added after the Muslims conquered Constantinople in 1452.

Yan Liben (China, c. 600-673 CE) painter, sculptor
The Thirteen Emperors Scroll (Portraits of Thirteen Emperors) (c. 640-673 CE)
Portraits of Emperor Taizong’s Six Favorite War Steeds (relief sculptures) (c. 640-673 CE)
Portraits at Lingyan Pavilion (Portraits of the 24 Greatest Contributors to Emperor Taizong’s Reign) (c. 640-673 CE)
Portraits of the 18 Scholars who served Emperor Taizong when he was the Prince of Qin (c. 640-673 CE)

Yan Liben was primarily known as a painter, but he was also a sculptor. He carved the relief sculpture Six Steeds of the Emperor.

Primarily known for his painting, Yan Liben was also a sculptor. He carved the relief sculpture Portraits of Emperor Taizong’s Six Favorite War Steeds.

Eadfrith of Lindisfarne (UK: England, c. 650-721 CE) illustrator
Lindisfarne Gospels (c. 700-715 CE)

Two pages from the Lindisfarne Gospels.

Two pages from the Lindisfarne Gospels.

Gunadharma (Indonesia, c. 720-780 CE) architect
Borobudur Temple. Java, Indonesia (attrib.) (c. 750-825 CE)

A view of Borobudur Temple showing detail of the exterior, including relief sculptures.

A view of Borobudur Temple showing detail of the exterior, including relief sculptures.

Trdat (Armenia, c. 945-c. 1020 CE) architect
Hagia Sophia (restoration of dome). Istanbul (989-994 CE)

Trdat repaired the dome of Hagia Sophia after it collapsed following an earthquake in 989 CE.

Armenian architect Trdat repaired Hagia Sophia’s dome after it collapsed following an earthquake in 989 CE.

Fan Kuan (China, c. 960-1020 CE) painter
Travellers Among Mountains and Streams (c. 990-1020 CE)
Cold Woods in Snow (attribution in question) (c. 990-1020 CE)

A magnificent landscape dwarfs the tiny figures of a man and his animals in Fan Kuan's Travelers Among Mountains and Streams.

A magnificent landscape dwarfs the tiny figures of a man and his animals in Fan Kuan’s Travelers Among Mountains and Streams.

Ibn al-Bawwab (Persia, c. 960-1022 CE) illustrator, calligrapher
Illustrated Qur’an (c. 1000-1001)

A page from Ibn al-Bawwab's only surviving illustrated Qur'an.

A page from Ibn al-Bawwab’s only surviving illustrated Qur’an.

William of Volpiano (Italy, 962-1031 CE) architect
Romanesque Church, Mont St. Michel Abbey. Le Mont St. Michel, France (1024-1084)

An interior view of the Mont St. Michel Abbey Church.

An interior view of the Mont St. Michel Abbey Church.

Liuthar (Germany, late 10th Century-early 11th Century) scribe, illustrator
Gospel Book of Otto III (c. 997-1000) (with his workshop)

Jesus Washes the Feet of His Disciples, a full-page illustration from the Gospel Book of Otto III.

Guo Xi (China, c. 1020-1090) painter
Early Spring (1072)
Snow Mountain (1060-1090)
Autumn in the River Valley (Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys) (c. 1060-1060)

Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys is traditionally attributed to Northern Song painter Guo Xi.

Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys is traditionally attributed to Northern Song painter Guo Xi.

Master Esteban (Spain, late 11th-early 12th Century) sculptor
Relief Sculptures, South Façade (Das Pratarías), Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Santiago de Compostela, Spain (c. 1103-1117)

Master Esteban carved the Das Pratarías façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, a major pilgrimage church in Spain. 

Diotisalvi (Italy, c. 1095-c. 1175) architect
Leaning Tower of Pisa (Campanile, Pisa Cathedral) (attrib.). Pisa, Italy (1173)

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the bell tower, or campanile, of the Pisa Cathedral, seen at left.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the bell tower, or campanile, of the Pisa Cathedral, seen at left.

Fujiwara no Takayoshi (Japan, c. 1090-c. 1188) painter
The Tale of Genji Scroll (Genji Monogatari Emaki) (attribution in question) (1120-1140)

A scene from the Tale of Genji scroll.

A scene from the Tale of Genji scroll.

Master Hugo (UK: England, c. 1100-1170) illustrator
The Bury Bible (c. 1135)

An illustration from the Bury Bible, showing Crusaders successfully taking Jerusalem.

An illustration from the Bury Bible, showing Crusaders successfully taking Jerusalem.

Maurice de Sully (France, c. 1120-1196) architect
Cathedral of Notre-Dame. Paris (attrib.) (1163-1185)

A view of the east side of Notre Dame Cathedral, showing the flying buttresses.

A view of the east side of Notre Dame Cathedral, showing the flying buttresses.

Nicholas of Verdun (France, 1130-1205) goldsmith, enamellist
Verdun Altar (Klosterneuberg Altarpiece) (1181)

Detail of the Verdun Altar, showing some of the over 50 enameled Biblical scenes.

Detail of the Verdun Altar, showing some of the over 50 enameled Biblical scenes.

Kosho (Japan, c. 1155-1237) sculptor
Kuya Preaching (The Sage Kuya; Saint Kuya). Rokuhara Mitsu-ji, Kyoto (c. 1185-1206)

Kosho's Kuya Preaching shows the religious figure uttering the six syllables of the Amida prayer, represented by six tiny buddhas.

Kosho’s Kuya Preaching shows the religious figure uttering the six syllables of the Amida prayer, represented by six tiny buddhas.

Ma Yuan (China, c. 1160-1225) painter
Walking on a Mountain Path in Spring (c. 1190-1224)
Landscape with Willows (Bare Willows and Distant Hills) (c. 1190-1224)
Banquet by Lantern Light (c. 1190-1224)
Dancing and Singing (Peasants Returning from Work) (c. 1190-1224)
Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight (c. 1190-1224)
Angler on a Wintry Lake (Solitary Fisherman on the River in Cold Weather) (c. 1190-1224)
The Four Sages of Shangshan  (c. 1190-1224)

Ma Yuan painted Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight on a silk fan, which was then mounted as an album leaf.

Ma Yuan painted Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight on a silk fan, which was then mounted as an album leaf.

Jokei (Japan, c. 1160-c. 1210) sculptor
Bugaku mask (Sanju). Kasuga Shrine, Nara (c. 1184)
Nio Guardians (Kongo Rikishi). Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (1190s)
Statue of Yuima. Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (c. 1196)
Seated Monju Bosatsu. Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (c. 1196)
Bonten (Brahma). Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (c. 1202)

Jokei's statue of Yuima is located in the Kofuku-ji Temple in Nara, Japan.

Jokei’s statue of Yuima is located in the Kofuku-ji Temple in Nara, Japan.

Pierre de Montreuil (France, c. 1200-1266) architect
Sainte-Chapelle. Paris (1238-1248)

A view of the interior of Sainte-Chapelle, a Gothic church in Paris.

A view of the interior of Sainte-Chapelle, a Gothic church in Paris.

Nicola Pisano (Italy, 1220/1225-c. 1284) sculptor
Pulpit, Pisa Baptistery. Pisa (1255-1260)

Detail of Nicola Pisano's pulpit in the Pisa Baptistery, showing the Crucifixion panel.

Detail of Nicola Pisano’s pulpit in the Pisa Baptistery, showing the Crucifixion panel.

Cimabue (Italy, c. 1240-1302) painter, mosaicist
Crucifix. San Domenico, Arezzo, Italy (1268-1271)
Madonna Enthroned with the Child, St. Francis and Four Angels. Lower church, San Francesco, Assisi (1278-1280)
The Four Evangelists. Upper church, San Francesco, Assisi (1280-1283)
Crucifix. Santa Croce, Florence (1287-1288)
Santa Trinita Maestà (Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets) (1280-1290)
Christ in Glory between the Virgin and St. John the Evangelist (mosaic). Pisa Cathedral, Pisa (1301-1302)

Although Cimabue is known primarily for his painting, he was also a skilled mosaicist, as shown by his mosaic of Christ in the apse of the Pisa Cathedral.

Although Cimabue is known primarily for his painting, he was also a skilled mosaicist, as shown by his mosaic of Christ in Glory in the apse of the Pisa Cathedral.

Arnolfo di Cambio (Italy, c. 1240-1310) architect, sculptor
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (c. 1290-1310)

The façade of the Florence Cathedral. Construction of the massive church began in the late 13th Century and continued until the 16th Century.

The façade of the Florence Cathedral. Construction of the massive church began in the late 13th Century and continued until the 16th Century.

Duccio (Duccio di Buoninsegna) (Italy, c.1255-60–1318-19) painter, stained glass artist
Madonna with Child and two Angels (Crevole Madonna) (1283-1284)
Rucellai Madonna (1285)
Assumption, Burial and Crowning of the Virgin (stained glass window). Siena Cathedral, Siena (1287-1288)
Madonna of the Franciscans (c. 1300)
Stroganoff Madonna (Stoclet Madonna) (1300)
Madonna with Child and Six Angels (Perugia Madonna) (1300-1305)
Maestà (Madonna with Twenty Angels and Nineteen Saints; Siena Duomo Altarpiece) (1308-1311)
The Virgin and Child with Saints Dominic and Agnes (London Triptych) (c. 1312-1315)

Duccio originally painted the Rucellai Madonna for a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. It is now in the Uffizi Gallery.

Duccio originally painted the Rucellai Madonna for a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. It is now in the Uffizi Gallery.

Pietro Cavallini (Italy, 1259-c. 1330) painter, mosaicist
The Last Judgment, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. Rome (c. 1293)

Detail of Jesus from Cavallini’s Last Judgment fresco.

Giotto (Giotto di Bondone) (Italy, c. 1267-1337) painter
Frescoes, Scovegni Chapel (Arena Chapel). Padua (c. 1305)
Madonna Enthroned and Saints (Ognissanti Madonna) (1310-1311)
Frescoes, Peruzzi Chapel, Church of Santa Croce. Florence (1315-1320)
Stefaneschi Triptych (1320)
Frescoes, Bardi Chapel, Church of Santa Croce. Florence (1320-1325)
Campanile, Florence Cathedral. Florence (1334-1337)

The Ascension of St. John the Baptist was one of the frescoes Giotto painted in the Peruzzi Chapel of Florence's Church of Santa Croce.

The Ascension of St. John the Baptist was one of the frescoes Giotto painted in the Peruzzi Chapel of Florence’s Church of Santa Croce.

Huang Gongwang (China, 1269-1354) painter
Stone Cliff at Heavenly Pond (1341)
Nine Pearl Peaks in Green (1340s)
Nine Peaks Clearing After Snow (1340s)
Great Mountains at Fuchun (Fuchun Range) (1340s)
Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains (c. 1350)

Huang Gongwang's painting Stone Cliff at Heavenly Pond.

Huang Gongwang’s painting Stone Cliff at Heavenly Pond.

Simone Martini (Italy, 1284-1344) painter
Maestà. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena (1315)
St. Louis of Toulouse Crowning Robert of Anjou (Altar of St. Louis of Toulouse) (c. 1317)
Frescoes, St. Martin Chapel. Lower church, San Francesco, Assisi (1313-1319)
Blessed Agostino Novello Altarpiece (1324)
Equestrian Portrait of Guidoriccio da Fogliano (attrib.). Palazzo Pubblico, Siena (c. 1328-1330)
The Annunciation with St. Margaret and St. Ansanus (Annunciation Altarpiece). With Lippo Memmi (1333)
Frontispiece, Petrarch’s Virgil (c. 1336)

In addition to his religious and secular frescoes and panels, Simone Martini illustrated the cover of Petrarch's translation of Virgil.

In addition to his religious and secular frescoes and panels, Simone Martini illustrated the cover of Petrarch’s translation of Virgil.

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (Italy, 1290-1348) painter
Madonna and Child. San Casciano in Val di Pesa, Italy (1319)
The Oath of St. Louis of Toulouse. Church of San Francesco, Siena (1324-1327)
Suckling Madonna. Palazzo Arcivescovile, Siena (c. 1330)
Four Stories from the Life of St. Nicholas of Bari (1332)
Maestà (Madonna with Angels and Saints). St. Cerbonius Cathedral, Massa Marittima, Italy (c. 1335)
Maestà. Piccolomini Chapel, Church of Sant’Agostino, Siena (c. 1330, 1338)
The Allegory of Good and Bad Government. Sala dei Nove, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena (1338-1339)
Presentation of Christ in the Temple (1342)
The Annunciation (1344)

The Uffizi Gallery in Florence owns four scenes of the life of St. Nicolas di Bari, painted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, which may have been part of a larger polyptych. In this scene, St. Nicolas performs a miracle by filling the ships' holds with grain.

The Uffizi Gallery in Florence owns four scenes of the life of St. Nicolas di Bari, painted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, which may have been part of a larger polyptych. In this scene, St. Nicolas performs a miracle by filling the ships’ holds with grain.

Andrea Pisano (Italy, 1290-1348) sculptor, architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1340-1348)

While performing the duties of Chief Architect for Florence Cathedral, Andrea Pisano also created relief sculptures for one set of doors for the Baptistery as well as for one side of Giotto's Campanile (see photo).

While performing the duties of Chief Architect for Florence Cathedral, Andrea Pisano also created relief sculptures for one set of doors for the Baptistery as well as for one side of Giotto’s Campanile (see photo).

Francesco Talenti (Italy, c. 1300-after 1369) sculptor, architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1349-1359)

Among Francesco Talenti's contributions to the Florence Cathedral was the Porta del Campanile, shown here.

Among Francesco Talenti’s contributions to the Florence Cathedral was the Porta del Campanile, shown here.

Ni Zan (China, 1301-1371) painter, draughtsman
The Rongxi Studio (1372)

Ni Zan's painting, The Rongxi Studio.

Ni Zan’s painting, The Rongxi Studio.

Giovanni di Lapo Ghini (Italy, c. 1320-c. 1380) architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1360-1369)

divided the center nave in four square bays.

A major decision of Giovanni di Labo Ghini as head architect of the Florence Cathedral in the 1360s was to divide the center nave into four square bays.

Alberto Arnoldi (Italy, c. 1320-c. 1380) sculptor, architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (c. 1358)

Alberto Arnoldi's work on the Florence Cathedral involved the bell tower, known as Giotto's Campanile for the architect who began the work.

Alberto Arnoldi worked on the Florence Cathedral’s bell tower, which is called Giotto’s Campanile because Giotto di Bondone began the work (see detail above).

Henry Yevele (UK: England, c. 1320-1400) architect, mason
Westminster Abbey (Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster). London (1362-1399)

An interior view of Westminster Abbey, showing the nave built by Henry Yvele.

An interior view of Westminster Abbey, showing the nave built by Henry Yevele.

Nicolas Bataille (France, 1330/1340-1405) tapestry weaver
Apocalypse Tapestry (1377-1382) (with Jean Bondol and Robert Poinçon)

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry, showing Babylon being invaded by demons.A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry, showing Babylon being invaded by demons.

Jean Bondol (Hennequin of Bruges) (Flanders, c. 1340-c. 1400) painter, draughtsman
Apocalypse Tapestry (1377-1382) (with Nicolas Bataille and Robert Poinçon)

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry.

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry showing the harlot riding the Beast.

Robert Poinçon (France, c. 1340-c. 1410) tapestry weaver
Apocalypse Tapestry (1377-1382) (with Nicolas Bataille and Jean Bondol)

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry showing the heavenly Jerusalem.

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry showing the heavenly Jerusalem.

Claus Sluter (The Netherlands/France, c. 1345-1405/1406) sculptor
The Well of Moses. Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France (1395-1405)
Mourners, Tomb of Philip the Bold. With Claus de Werve (1395-1410)

Around the base of the Well of Moses, Claus Sluter carved the Old Testament prophets who are said to have predicted the coming of Jesus. Here are David and Jeremiah.

Around the base of the Well of Moses, Claus Sluter carved the Old Testament prophets who are said to have predicted the coming of Jesus. Here are David and Jeremiah.

Melchior Broederlam (Flanders/Belgium, c. 1350-after 1409) painter, goldsmith
Altar of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (Dijon Altarpiece) (c. 1393-1399)

Detail of Broederlam’s altarpiece paintings, showing the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple.

Andrei Rublev (Russia, c. 1360-1369 – c. 1327-1430) painter
Holy Trinity Icon (1408-1425)

Andrei Rublev's famous Holy Trinity Icon.

Andrei Rublev’s famous Holy Trinity Icon.

Gentile da Fabriano (Italy, c. 1370-1427) painter
The Life of St. Stephen, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Benozzo Gozzoli. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Life of St. Lawrence, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Benozzo Gozzoli. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)

St. Lawrence Receiving the Treasures of the Church, one of the frescoes painted by Fra Angelico and his assistants in the Niccoline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.

St. Lawrence Receiving the Treasures of the Church, one of the frescoes painted by Fra Angelico and his assistants Gentile da Fabiano and Bennozzo Gozzoli in the Niccoline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.

Jacopo della Quercia (Italy, c. 1374-1438) sculptor
Fonte Gaia. Piazza del Campo, Siena (1414-1419)
Porta Magna, San Petronio Church. Bologna (1425-1434)

The Creation of Man, shown here, is one of many relief sculptures created by Jacopo della Quercia for the Porta Magna of San Petronio Church in Bologna, Italy.

The Creation of Man, shown here, is one of many relief sculptures created by Jacopo della Quercia for the Porta Magna of San Petronio Church in Bologna.

Robert Campin (Flanders, c. 1375-1444) painter
Mérode Altarpiece (attribution in question) (c. 1425-1428)
Werl Altarpiece (Werl Triptych) (attribution in question) (1438)

Detail from the left wing of the Werl Altarpiece, showing the donor's patron saint, John the Baptist with his attribute, the Lamb of God. The mirror is believed to be a tribute to or imitation of van Eyck's Arnolfini Wedding Portrait.

Detail from the left wing of the Werl Altarpiece, showing John the Baptist, the donor’s patron saint, with his attribute, the Lamb of God. The mirror is believed to be a tribute to or imitation of Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Wedding Portrait. Scholars are not sure that Campin painted the piece, which is missing the center panel.

Filippo Brunelleschi (Italy, 1377-1446) sculptor, architect
Church of San Lorenzo. Florence (1434-1437)
Ospedale degli Innocenti (Hospital of the Innocents). Florence (1424-1445)
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1296-1436)
Church of Santo Spirito. Florence (1434-1482)

Filippo Brunelleschi solved the complex architectural problem of capping the Florence Cathedral with a dome. It is his greatest achievement.

Filippo Brunelleschi solved the complex architectural problem of capping the Florence Cathedral with a dome. It is his greatest achievement.

Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italy, 1378-1455) sculptor, goldsmith
North Doors, Florence Baptistery. Florence (1403-1424)
The Gates of Paradise (East Doors, Florence Baptistery). Florence (1425-1452)

The Story of Jacob and Esau, a panel from Lorenzo Ghiberti's magnificent set of doors for the Florence Baptistery known as The Gates of Paradise.

The Story of Jacob and Esau, a panel from Lorenzo Ghiberti’s magnificent set of doors for the Florence Baptistery known as The Gates of Paradise.

Claus de Werve (The Netherlands/France, c. 1380-1439) sculptor
Mourners, Tomb of Philip the Bold. With Claus Suter (1395-1410)

A portion of the arcade beneath the tomb of Philip the Bold showing some of the mourners carved by Claus Sluter and Claus de Werve.

A portion of the arcade beneath the tomb of Philip the Bold showing some of the mourners carved by Claus Sluter and Claus de Werve.

Herman, Paul & Johan Limbourg (The Netherlands/France, c. 1388-1416) painters, illustrators
Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1411-1416)

The illustration for the month of October in Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.

The illustration for the month of October in Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.

Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) (Italy, 1386-1466) sculptor
St. Mark. Church of Orsanmichele, Florence (1411-1413)
St. George (1415-1417)
The Feast of Herod. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Siena (1423-1427)
Funeral Monument of (Anti-)Pope John XXIII. With Michelozzo. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Siena (c. 1425-1430)
The Annunciation. Church of Santa Croce, Florence (c. 1435)
David (c. 1430-1440)
Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata (Gattamelata). Piazza del Santo, Padua (c. 1443-1453)
Mary Magdalene (The Penitent Magdalene) (c. 1453-1457)
Judith and Holofernes. Palazzo Vecchio, Florence (1460)

Donatello's sculptural portrait of the Penitent Mary Magdalene.

Donatello’s highly realistic portrait of the Penitent Mary Magdalene is carved from poplar wood.

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro) (Italy, 1387-1455) painter
The Annunciation of Cortona (c. 1433-1434)
The Last Judgment (1432-1435)
Deposition of Christ (1433-1440)
San Marco Altarpiece (Madonna and Saints) (1438-1443)
The Annunciation (top of dormitory stairs, San Marco Museum) (1437-1447)
The Life of St Stephen, Niccoline Chapel. With Benozzo Gozzoli and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Life of St Lawrence, Niccoline Chapel. With Benozzo Gozzoli and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)

The San Marco Altarpiece, by Fra Angelico.

The San Marco Altarpiece, by Fra Angelico.

Jan van Eyck (Flanders, 1390-1441) painter
The Ghent Altarpiece. With Hubert van Eyck (?) (1432)
Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban (1433)
Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (The Arnolfini Portrait; The Arnolfini Wedding) (1434)
Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (1434-1435)
Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele (1434-1436)
The Annunciation (1434-1436)
Madonna and Child at the Fountain (1439)

The Annunciation, by Jan van Eyck, is located in the National Gallery of Art, in Washington, D.C.

The Annunciation, by Jan van Eyck, is located in the National Gallery of Art, in Washington, D.C.

Paolo Uccello (Italy, 1397-1475) painter
Creation and Fall. Green Cloister, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1432-1436)
Monument to Sir John Hawkwood. Florence Cathedral, Florence (c. 1436)
Clock Face with Four Prophets. Florence Cathedral, Florence (1443)
The Deluge (The Flood). Green Cloister, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (c. 1447-1448)
Portrait of a Lady (attribution in question) (1450)
The Battle of San Romano I: Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino (c. 1438–1440)
The Battle of San Romano II: Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino unseats Bernardino della Ciarda (c. 1435–1455)
The Battle of San Romano III: The Counterattack of Michelotto da Cotignola (c. 1455)
Corpus Domini Predella (Miracle of the Profaned Host) (1465–1469)
The Hunt in the Forest (The Hunt) (c. 1470)
Saint George and the Dragon (c. 1470)

Paolo Uccello painted the fresco The Flood on the walls of the Green Cloister in Florence's Church of Santa Maria Novella.

Paolo Uccello painted the fresco The Flood on the walls of the Green Cloister in Florence’s Church of Santa Maria Novella.

Rogier van der Weyden (Flanders, 1399-1464) painter
Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin (1435-1440)
Descent from the Cross (Deposition of Christ) (1435-1440)
The Annunciation Triptych (1435-1440)
The Entombment of Christ (1450)
The Last Judgment Altarpiece (Beaune Altarpiece) (1450)
St. Columba Altarpiece (The Adoration of the Magi Triptych) (c. 1460)
Portrait of a Lady (c. 1460)
Portrait of Francesco d’Este (c. 1460)

The Last Judgment, a polyptych and altarpiece painted by Rogier van der Weyden.

The Last Judgment, a polyptych and altarpiece painted by Rogier van der Weyden.

Konrad Witz (Germany/Switzerland, 1400 or 1410-1445 or 1446) painter
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (1444)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes by Konrad Witz tells a Biblical story, but is also famous in art history for its realistic landscape.

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes by Konrad Witz tells a Biblical story, but is also famous in art history for its realistic landscape.

Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone) (Italy, 1401-1428) painter
San Giovenale Triptych. Church of Cascia di Reggello, San Pietro di Cascia, Italy (1422)
Virgin and Child with St. Anne (1424)
Portrait of a Young Man (1423-1425)
Madonna and Child with Angels (1426)
Crucifixion (1426)
Saint Paul (1426)
The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
The Tribute Money. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
Baptism of the Neophytes. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
Raising of the Son of Theophilus and St Peter Enthroned. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
The Distribution of Alms and Death of Ananias. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
St Peter Healing the Sick with His Shadow. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
The Holy Trinity. Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1427-1428)

Masaccio's Portrait of a Young Man.

Masaccio’s Portrait of a Young Man.

Leon Battista Alberti (Italy, 1404-1472) architect
Façade, Palazzo Rucellai. Florence (1445–1451)
Church of San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano). Rimini, Italy (1450-1468)
Upper Façade, Church of Santa Maria Novella. Florence (1448–1470)
Church of San Sebastiano. Mantua (1458-1470)
Basilica of Sant’Andrea. Mantua (1472-1490)

An interior view of the Church of Sant'Andrea in Mantua, which was designed by Leonardo Alberti.

An interior view of the Church of Sant’Andrea in Mantua, which was designed by Leon Alberti.

Stefan Lochner (Germany, c. 1410-1451) painter
Madonna of the Rose Bower (c. 1440-1442)

Detail of Mary from Stefan Lochner’s Madonna of the Rose Bower.

Domenico Veneziano (Italy, c. 1410-1461) painter
Santa Lucia de’ Magnoli Altarpiece (St. Lucy Altarpiece) (c. 1445-1447)

Detail of Veneziano’s St. Lucy Altarpiece, showing St. Zenobius and John the Baptist.

Dieric Bouts (The Netherlands, c. 1415-1475) painter
The Last Supper (1464-1467)

Detail from the center panel of Dieric Bouts' Last Supper altarpiece.

Detail from the center panel of Dieric Bouts’ Last Supper altarpiece.

Aristotele Fioravanti (Italy, c. 1415-after 1486) architect
The Kremlin (Dormition Cathedral). Moscow (1475-1479)

The Dormition Cathedral (Cathedral of the Assumption) in the Kremlin in Moscow.

The Dormition Cathedral (Cathedral of the Assumption) in the Kremlin in Moscow.

Piero della Francesca (Italy, 1416-1492) painter
The Baptism of Christ (c. 1448–1450)
Portrait of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (c. 1451)
The Flagellation of Christ (c. 1460)
Madonna della Misericordia (Polyptych of the Misericordia). Museo Civico, Sansepolcro, Italy (1445–1462)
The Resurrection. Museo Civico, Sansepolcro, Italy (c. 1463)
The Legend of the True Cross (The History of the True Cross). Church of San Francesco, Arezzo, Italy (c. 1455–1466)
Portraits of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza, the Duke and Duchess of Urbino (c. 1472)
Madonna and Child with Saints (Brera Madonna; Montefeltro Altarpiece) (1472–1474)

The Portrait of Sigismondo Malatesta by Piero della Francesca.

The Portrait of Sigismondo Malatesta by Piero della Francesca.

Jean Fouquet (France, 1420-1481) painter
The Melun Diptych (c. 1450-1452)

The left wing of the Melun Diptych, by Jean Fouquet, shows the donor, Étienne Chevalier, with his patron saint St. Stephen, who is bleeding from a head wound.

The left wing of the Melun Diptych, by Jean Fouquet, shows the donor, Étienne Chevalier, with his patron saint St. Stephen, who is bleeding from a head wound.

Andrea del Castagno (Italy, c. 1421-1457) painter
The Last Supper (1445-1450)
The Youthful David (1450) (decorative shield)

Detail showing left side of Andrea del Castagno’s Last Supper fresco.

Benozzo Gozzoli (Italy, c. 1421-1497) painter
The Life of St. Stephen, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Life of St. Lawrence, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Procession of the Magi. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence (c. 1459-1462)

Detail from Benozzo Gozzoli's Procession of the Magi, which he painted on the walls of the chapel in the Medici palace in Florence.

Detail from Benozzo Gozzoli’s Procession of the Magi, which he painted on the walls of the chapel in the Medici palace in Florence.

Antonio Pollaiuolo (Antonio del Pollaiuolo) (Italy, 1429/1433-1498) sculptor, painter, engraver, goldsmith
Hercules and Antaeus (c. 1470-1475)

Hercules and Antaeus.

Antonello da Messina (Italy, c. 1430-1479) painter
Portrait of a Man (1475-1476)
Virgin Annunciate (c. 1476)
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (c. 1476-1479)

In Virgin Annunciate, Antonello da Messina tells the story of the Annunciation without depicting the Angel Gabriel.

In Virgin Annunciate, Antonello da Messina tells the story of the Annunciation without depicting the Angel Gabriel.

Hugo van der Goes (Flanders, c. 1430/1440-1482) painter
The Portinari Altarpiece (c. 1475)

Detail from the central panel of the Portinari Altarpiece, showing the Procession of the Magi in the background.

Detail from the central panel of the Portinari Altarpiece, showing the Procession of the Magi in the background.

Hans Memling (Germany/Flanders, c. 1430-1494) painter
The Last Judgment (1467-1471)
St. John’s Altarpiece. Old St. John’s Hospital, Bruges (1474-1479)

The center panel of the St. John's Altarpiece, showing the Madonna and Child, St. John, St. Catherine.

The center panel of the St. John’s Altarpiece, showing the Madonna and Child, St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, St. Margaret and St. Catherine (depicting the Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine).

Giovanni Bellini (Italy, c. 1430-1516) painter
Dead Christ Supported by Two Angels (c. 1460)
The Agony in the Garden (1465)
St. Francis in Ecstasy (St. Francis in the Desert) (1480-1485)
San Giobbe Altarpiece (1487)
Madonna degli Alberetti (Madonna of the Small Trees) (1487)
Sacred Allegory (c. 1490-1500)
Portrait of Doge Leonardo Loredan (1501-1504)
San Zaccaria Altarpiece (Madonna and Child Enthroned with Sts. Peter, Catherine, Lucia and Jerome). Church of San Zaccaria, Venice (1505)
Madonna of the Meadow (1505)
The Feast of the Gods (1514)
Young Woman Holding a Mirror (Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror) (1515)

Scholars have not reached a consensus on how to interpret Giovanni Bellini's Sacred Allegory, now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Scholars have not reached a consensus on how to interpret Giovanni Bellini’s Sacred Allegory, now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Andrea Mantegna (Italy, 1431-1506) painter
St. James Led to his Execution (1453-1455) (destroyed)
St. Sebastian (Vienna) (c. 1457–1459)
San Zeno Altarpiece (1457–1460)
The Crucifixion(from predella of San Zeno Altarpiece) (1457–1460)
Death of the Virgin (Dormition of the Virgin) (1460-1464)
Frescoes, Camera degli Sposi. Ducal Palace, Mantua (1465-1474)
St. Sebastian (Paris) (1480)
Triumph of Caesar (series of nine paintings) (c. 1486)
The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c. 1490)
Madonna della Vittoria (Madonna of Victory) (1495)
Minerva Chases the Vices from the Garden of Virtue (Triumph of Virtue) (c. 1502)

Andrea Mantegna's Triumph of the Virtues is a late work with a mythological theme, unlike most of his paintings, which treat religious subjects.

Andrea Mantegna’s Triumph of the Virtues is a late work with a mythological theme, unlike most of his paintings, which treat religious subjects.

Niccolò dell’Arca (Italy, c. 1435/1440-1494) sculptor
Lamentation over the Dead Christ. Church of Santa Maria della vita, Bologna (c. 1460-1463 or 1485-1490)

The multi-piece sculpture of the Lamentation over the Dead Christ by Niccolò_dell'Arca contains some highly expressive figures.

A multi-piece sculpture, Niccolò dell’Arca’s Lamentation over the Dead Christ (a portion of which is shown here) contains several highly expressive mourning figures.

Andrea del Verrocchio (Andrea di Michele di Francesco de’ Cioni) (Italy, c. 1435-1488) sculptor
David (c. 1473-1475)
Equestrian Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni, Campo Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy (1480-1488)

Detail of the Equestrian Statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni.

Michael Pacher (Austria, c. 1435-1498) sculptor, painter
St. Wolfgang Altarpiece. Church of St. Wolfgang im Salzkammergut, Austria (1471-1481)
Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (1484)

Detail from Michael Pacher's St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, showing the carved Coronation of the Virgin in the interior center panel.

Detail from Michael Pacher’s St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, showing the carved Coronation of the Virgin in the interior center panel.

Donato Bramante (Italy, 1444-1514) architect
Santa Maria presso San Satiro. Milan (1476–1482)
Cloister and Apse, Santa Maria delle Grazie. Milan (1492–1497)
Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio. Rome (c. 1502)
Cloister, Santa Maria della Pace. Rome (1500-1504)
Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael). Rome (1504-1510) (demolished)
Cortile del Belvedere (Belvedere Court). Vatican City (1505-1514) (significantly altered)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1506-1626)

An interior view of the Church of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan, showing Bramante's apse.

An interior view of the Church of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan, showing Bramante’s apse.

Pietro Antonio Solari (Switzerland/Italy, c. 1445-1493) architect
The Kremlin (walls and towers). Moscow (1487-1491)
The Kremlin (Palace of Facets). Moscow (1487-1492)

A view of the Faceted Chamber, inside the Palace of Facets, part of the Kremlin. The building was begun by Marco Ruffo and completed by Piero Antoni Solari.

A view of the Faceted Chamber, inside the Palace of Facets, part of the Kremlin. The building was begun by Marco Ruffo and completed by Pietro Antonio Solari.

Sandro Botticelli (Italy, 1445-1510) painter
The Adoration of the Magi (1475-1476)
Virgin and Child with Eight Angels (Madonna and Child with Eight Angels; Raczynski Tondo) (1477-1478)
Saint Augustine in his Study. Church of Ognissanti, Florence (1480)
La Primavera (Allegory of Spring) (1477-1482)
Punishment of the Rebels. Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1481-1482)
Madonna of the Magnificat (1481-1485)
Venus and Mars (1483-1485)
The Birth of Venus (1482-1486)
Madonna of the Pomegranate (1487)

Venus and Mars, by Sandro Botticelli.

Venus and Mars, by Sandro Botticelli.

Luca Signorelli (Italy, c. 1445-1523) painter
The Damned Cast into Hell (The Damned Taken to Hell and Received by Demons), Chapel of San Brizio, Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy (c. 1499-1504)

Detail of Signorelli’s fresco The Damned Cast into Hell, showing the three archangels.

Pietro Perugino (Italy, c. 1446/1450-1523) painter
The Delivery of the Keys (Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter). Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1481-1482)

Detail from the upper left corner of Perugino's Delivery of the Keys, showing the story of the Money Collector against the background of a Roman triumphal arch.

Detail from the upper left corner of Perugino’s Delivery of the Keys, showing the story of the Tribute Money against the background of a Roman triumphal arch.

Veit Stoss (Germany, c. 1448-1533) sculptor
St Mary’s Altarpiece (Altarpiece of Veit Stoss). St. Mary’s Basilica, Kraków< (1477-1489)

A sculpted scene of the Coronation of Mary tops the St. Mary Altarpiece, by Veit Stoss.

A sculpted scene of the Coronation of Mary tops the St. Mary Altarpiece, by Veit Stoss.

Domenico Ghirlandaio (Italy, 1449-1494) painter
An Old Man and His Grandson (1490)

Detail of Ghirlandaio's An Old Man and His Grandson showing the landscape.

Detail of Ghirlandaio’s An Old Man and His Grandson showing the landscape outside the window.

Hieronymus Bosch (The Netherlands, 1450-1516) painter
Ecce Homo (after 1475)
St. Jerome at Prayer (c. 1482)
Cutting the Stone (The Cure of Folly) (c. 1494)
Ship of Fools (1490-1500)
The Conjurer (1502)
The Garden of Earthly Delights (c. 1490-1510, poss. 1503-1504)
The Last Judgment (c. 1482-1516, probably 1504-1508)
The Temptation of St. Anthony (triptych) (1500-1516)
The Haywain Triptych (c. 1516)
Christ Carrying the Cross (attribution in question) (c. 1510-1535)

Ship of Fools, by Hieronymus Bosch.

Ship of Fools, by Hieronymus Bosch.

Kamal ud-Din Behzad (Persia, c. 1450-c. 1535) painter, illustrator
Illuminated Bustan of Saadi (1487-1488)

Part of the poet Saadi's story of Yusef and Zuleykha, as illustrated by Kamal al-Din Bihzad.

Part of the poet Saadi’s story of Yusef and Zuleykha, as illustrated by Kamal al-Din Bihzad.

Leonardo da Vinci (Italy, 1452-1519) painter, draftsman, sculptor, architect, scientist
The Adoration of the Magi (1481-1482)
Virgin of the Rocks (I) (1483-1486)
Lady with an Ermine (c. 1490)
The Last Supper. Santa Maria della Gracie, Milan (1495-1498)
Mona Lisa (1503-1505)
Virgin of the Rocks (II) (1495-1508)
The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (c. 1508-1510)
The Fetus in the Womb (1510-1513) (notebook drawing)

After the Louvre cleaned Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in 2011, some felt it was now brighter than da Vinci intended.

After the Louvre cleaned Leonardo da Vinci’s The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in 2011, some felt it was now brighter than da Vinci intended.

Marco Ruffo (Italy, c. 1455-c. 1505) architect
The Kremlin (towers). Moscow (1485-1495)
The Kremlin (Palace of Facets). Moscow (1487-1492)

Marco Ruffo designed the towers that punctuate the Kremlin wall, including Beklemishevskaya Tower, at the corner of the southeastern side of the Kremlin on the Moscow River.

Marco Ruffo designed the towers that punctuate the Kremlin wall, including Beklemishevskaya Tower (shown above), at the corner of the southeastern side of the Kremlin on the Moscow River.

Tilman Riemenschneider (Germany, c. 1460-1531) sculptor, woodcarver
Altar of the Holy Blood (Holy Blood Altarpiece). St. James Church, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany (1499-1505)
Hergottskirche Altarpiece (St. Mary Altar; Creglingen Altarpiece). Herrgottskirche, Creglingen, Germany (1505-1508)

Detail from the central panel of Tilman Riemenschneider's Holy Blood Altarpiece.

Detail from the central panel of Tilman Riemenschneider’s Holy Blood Altarpiece shows two apostles conversing at the Last Supper.

Geertgen tot Sint Jans (The Netherlands, c. 1465-c. 1495) painter
John the Baptist in the Wilderness (c. 1485-1490)

Detail of St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans.

Detail of  John the Baptist in the Wilderness, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans.

Domenico da Cortona (Italy, c. 1465-c. 1549) architect
Château de Chambord. Chambord, France (1519-1547)

A view inside one of the courtyards of Château de Chambord, showing an elaborate staircase.

A view inside one of the courtyards of Château de Chambord, showing an elaborate staircase.

Matthias Grünewald (Germany, 1470-1528) painter
The Mocking of Christ (c. 1503)
The Small Crucifixion (1511 or 1520)
The Isenheim Altarpiece (1515)
The Stuppach Madonna (Madonna in the Garden). Parish Church of the Coronation of the Virgin, Bad Mergentheim, Germany (1517-1519)
The Meeting of Sts. Erasmus and Maurice (The Disputation of Sts. Erasmus and Maurice) (c. 1523)
The Large Crucifixion (from the Tauberbischofsheim Altarpiece) (1523-1525)

The Stuppach Madonna, by Matthias Grünewald.

The Stuppach Madonna, by Matthias Grunewald.

Albrecht Dürer (Germany, 1471-1528) painter, printmaker
Apocalypse (woodcut series) (1498)
Self-Portrait (1498)
Self-Portrait at Age Twenty-Eight (Self-Portrait with Fur-Trimmed Robe) (1500)
Paumgartner Altarpiece (c. 1500)
Adam and Eve (engraving) (1504)
Adoration of the Magi (1504)
Adam and Eve (paintings) (1507)
Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1508)
The Large Passion (woodcut series) (c. 1497-1510)
Adoration of the Trinity (1511)
Knight, Death and the Devil (engraving) (1513)
Saint Jerome in His Study (engraving) (1514)
Melencolia I (engraving) (1514)
The Four Apostles (1526)

Christ in Limbo, one of a series of woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer known as The Large Passion.

Christ in Limbo, one of a series of woodcut engravings by Albrecht Dürer known as The Large Passion.

Sebastiano Serlio (Italy/France, 1475- c. 1554) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (c. 1530-c. 1550)

An aerial view of the Château de Fontainebleau.

An aerial view of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (Italy, 1475-1564) painter, sculptor, architect
Battle of the Centaurs. Casa Buonarroti, Florence (1491-1492)
Madonna of the Stairs. Casa Buonarroti, Florence (1491-1492)
Bacchus (1496-1497)
Pieta. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1498-1499)
David (1501-1504)
Frescoes, Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1508-1512)
Moses (Tomb of Pope Julius II). San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome (1513-1515)
The Rebellious Slave (1513-1516)
Medici Chapel (Sagrestia Nuova) (including Tombs of Lorenzo de’ Medici and Giuliano de’ Medici). Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence (1520-1534)
Frescoes, Sistine Chapel Altar Wall (The Last Judgment). Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1534-1541)
Piazza del Campidoglio. Rome (1536-1546)
Laurentian Library. Florence (1525-1571)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1506-1626)

Michelangelo created his statue of Bacchus in 1497.

Michelangelo completed his statue of Bacchus in 1497, at the age of 22.

Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco) (Italy, 1478-1510) painter
The Trial of Moses (The Test of Fire of Moses) (1500–1501)
The Judgment of Salomon (1500–1501)
Judith (c. 1504)
Adoration of the Shepherds (attribution in question) (c. 1505 or 1510)
The Castelfranco Madonna (Madonna and Child Enthroned between St. Francis and St. Nicasius). Duomo, Castelfranco Veneto, Italy (c. 1505)
Boy with an Arrow (1506)
Laura (Portrait of a Young Bride) (c. 1506)
The Tempest (c. 1505-1508)
The Three Philosophers (possibly completed by Sebastiano del Piombo) (1506-1509)
Sleeping Venus (completed by Titian) (c. 1510)

Boy with an Arrow, by Giorgione.

Boy with an Arrow, by Giorgione.

Albrecht Altdorfer (Germany, c. 1480-1538) painter, engraver, architect
The Battle of Alexander at Issus (Alexander’s Victory) (1529)

Detail from Albrecht Altdorfer's The Battle of Issus.

Detail from Albrecht Altdorfer’s The Battle of Alexander at Issus.

Jean Clouet (France, 1480-1541) painter
Portrait of François I King of France (Francis I) (c. 1525-1530) (with François Clouet?)

Clouet’s portrait of the French king.

Gilles le Breton (France, c. 1480-1553) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1528-1553)

The Chapel of the Trinity at Fontainebleau was one of many features designed by Gilles le Breton. Photo by Vivienne Gucwa.

The Chapel of the Trinity at Fontainebleau was one of many features designed by Gilles le Breton. Photo by Vivienne Gucwa.

Baldassare Peruzzi (Italy, 1481-1536) painter, architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1520-1536)

Few of Baldassarre Peruzzi's plans for St. Peter's Basilica - shown here in his drawing - came to fruition.

Few of Baldassarre Peruzzi’s plans for St. Peter’s Basilica – shown here in his drawing – came to fruition.

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino) (Italy, 1483-1520) painter, architect
Madonna of the Meadow (Madonna del Prato) (1505-1506)
Madonna del Carellino (Madonna of the Goldfinch) (1505-1506)
The School of Athens. Stanza della Segnatura, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1510-1511)
The Sistine Madonna (1512-1514)
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-1515)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1514-1520)
The Transfiguration (1516-1520)

Madonna of the Meadow, by Raphael.

Madonna of the Meadow, by Raphael, shows the Virgin Mary with Jesus and St. John the Baptist.

Hans Baldung Grien (Germany, c. 1484-1545) painter, printmaker
The Three Ages of Man and Death (The Three Ages of Man) (1539-1544)

The Three Ages of Man and Death, by Hans Baldung Grien.

The Three Ages of Man and Death, by Hans Baldung Grien.

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (Italy, 1485-1546) architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1521-1546)

Sangallo's plans for St. Peter's Basilica (shown above) were never realized.

Sangallo’s plans for St. Peter’s Basilica (shown above) were never realized.

Andrea del Sarto (Italy, 1486-1530) painter
Madonna of the Harpies (1515-1517)

Detail from Andrea del Sarto's Madonna of the Harpies, showing the Madonna and child.

Detail from Andrea del Sarto’s Madonna of the Harpies, showing the Madonna and child.

Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) (Italy, 1488-1576) painter
The Pastoral Concert (c. 1508-1510)
Man with a Glove (c. 1519-1522)
Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-1523)
Pesaro Madonna (Madonna di Ca’ Pesaro). Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice (1519-1526)
The Bacchanal of the Andrians (1523-1526)
Venus of Urbino (1538)
Danaë with Eros (Danaë) (Naples) (1544)
Pope Paul III and His Grandsons (1545-1546)
Danaë Receiving the Golden Rain (Danaë with Nursemaid) (Madrid) (1553-1554)
Danaë (St. Petersburg) (1553-1554)
The Rape of Europa (1559-1562)
Danaë. (with his workshop) (Vienna) (1564)

Detail of Titian's Rape of Europa showing Europa being abducted by Zeus, in the form of a bull.

Detail of Titian’s Rape of Europa showing Europa being abducted by Zeus in the form of a bull.

Correggio (Antonio Allegri da Correggio) (Italy, 1489-1534) painter
The Assumption of the Virgin. Parma Cathedral, Parma, Italy (c. 1526-1530)
Jupiter and Io (c. 1530-1532)

Detail of Corregio's Jupiter and Io, in which Jupiter appears to Io in the form of a cloud.

Detail of Corregio’s Jupiter and Io, in which Jupiter appears to Io in the form of a cloud.

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo; Il Rosso) (Italy, 1494-1540) painter
Descent from the Cross (Deposition from the Cross) (c. 1521)

Detail from Rosso Fiorentino’s Descent from the Cross.

Jacopo Pontormo (Italy, 1494-1557) painter
The Deposition of Christ (Deposition from the Cross). Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicita, Florence (1525-1528)

Detail of Jacopo Pontormo's Deposition of Christ, showing Christ's body supported by two young men, who may be angels.

Detail of Jacopo Pontormo’s Deposition of Christ, showing Christ’s body supported by two young men, who may be angels.

Hans Holbein the Younger (Germany, 1497-1543) painter, printmaker
The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb (1521-1522)
Portrait of Erasmus (1523)
Portrait of Sir Thomas More (1527)
Madonna of the Burgomaster Meyer (Darmstadt Madonna) (1526-1528)
Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling (1526-1528)
The Artist’s Family (1528)
The Ambassadors (1533)
Tudor Dynasty Mural (including Portrait of Henry VIII) (1536-1537) destroyed
Tudor Dynasty Mural (preparatory cartoon) (1537)
Tudor Dynasty Mural (preparatory portrait of Henry VIII) (1536-1537)
Portrait of Jane Seymour (1537)
Portrait of Anne of Cleves (c. 1539)

English court painter Hans Holbein the Younger painted this portrait of Jane Seymour, third wife of King Henry VIII. Unlike most of Henry's wives, she died of natural causes 12 days after giving birth to the future King Edward VI.

English court painter Hans Holbein the Younger painted this portrait of Jane Seymour, third wife of King Henry VIII. Unlike most of Henry’s wives, she died of natural causes 12 days after giving birth to the future King Edward VI.

Giulio Romano (Giulio Pippi) (Italy, 1499-1546) painter
The Fall of the Giants. Sala dei Giganti, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, Italy (1530-1532 or 1532-1534)

Detail of Guilio Romano’s Fall of the Giants fresco, showing Jupiter and the gods on Olympus.

Benvenuto Cellini (Italy, 1500-1571) sculptor, goldsmith, draftsman, author
Perseus with the Head of Medusa (Perseus). Loggia dei Lanzi, Piazza della Signoria, Florence (1545-1554)

Detail of Benvenuto Cellini's Perseus, showing the severed head of Medusa.

Detail of Benvenuto Cellini’s Perseus, showing the severed head of Medusa.

Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola) (Italy, 1503-1540) painter
Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1524)
The Conversion of St. Paul (1527-1528)
Madonna of the Long Neck (1535)

Detail of Parmigianino's Madonna of the Long Neck, showing the Madonna.

Detail of Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck, showing the Madonna.

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo) (Italy, 1503-1572) painter
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (c. 1545)

Detail from Bronzino's Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, showing an allegorical figure whose exact identity is disputed reacting violently to the incestuous behavior of Venus and her son Cupid.

Detail from Bronzino’s Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, showing an allegorical figure whose exact identity is disputed reacting violently to the incestuous behavior of Venus and her son Cupid.

Pieter Aertsen (The Netherlands, 1508-1575) painter
Butcher’s Stall (Butcher’s Stall with the Flight into Egypt) (1551)

Detail from the right side of Aertsen's Butcher's Stall.

Detail from the right side of Pieter Aertsen’s Butcher’s Stall.

Andrea Palladio (Italy, 1508-1580) architect
Villa Barbaro. Maser, Italy (c. 1555–1559)
Villa Capra “La Rotonda.” Vicenza, Italy (1566–1571)
Teatro Olimpico (Olympic Theater). Vicenza, Italy (1579–1580)
Il Redentore (Church of the Most Holy Redeemer). Venice (1577-1592)
Church of San Giorgio Maggiore. Venice (1566-1610)

A view of the interior of Andrea Palladio's Villa Capra "La Rotonda."

A view of the interior of Andrea Palladio’s Villa Capra “La Rotonda.”

François Clouet (France, c. 1510-1572) painter
Portrait of François I King of France (Francis I) (attribution in question) (c. 1525-1530) (with Jean Clouet)

Detail of the Portrait of King Francis I.

Pierre Lescot (France, c. 1510-1578) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1546-1551)

Pierre Lescot designed what is now called the Lescot Wing of the Palais du Louvre.

Pierre Lescot designed what is now called the Lescot Wing of the Palais du Louvre (shown above).

Philibert Delorme (France, c. 1514-1570) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1548-1559)

Philippe Delorme designed the original horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau, although it was later rebuilt by another architect.

Philippe Delorme designed the original horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau, although it was later rebuilt by another architect.

Juan Bautista de Toledo (Spain, c. 1515-1567) architect
El Escorial. San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain (1559-1567)

Juan Baptista de Toledo conceived the original plans for the El Escorial complex, including a monastery and a royal palace, but did not live to see the project completed. His design for the dome of the Basilica, shown here from inside the church, was based on that of St. Peter's.

Juan Baptista de Toledo conceived the original plans for the El Escorial complex, including a monastery and a royal palace, but did not live to see the project completed. His design for the dome of the Basilica, shown here from inside the church, was based on that of St. Peter’s.

Jean Bullant (France, 1515-1578) sculptor, architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1548-1570)

Jean Bullant, working with Philibert de l'Orme, designed the Grand Ballroom at the Palace of Fontainebleau for Henry II and Catherine de 'Medici.

Jean Bullant, working with Philibert de l’Orme, designed the Grand Ballroom at the Palace of Fontainebleau for Henry II and Catherine de ‘Medici.

Tintoretto (Jacopo Comin) (Italy, 1518-1594) painter
Miracle of the Slave (St. Mark Freeing the Slave) (1547-1548)
Christ Washing the Disciples’ Feet (c. 1548)
Venus, Mars and Vulcan (1550-1555)
The Rescue of Arsinoe (The Deliverance of Arsenoe) (1555-1556)
St. George and the Dragon (1555-1558)
The Crucifixion. Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice (1565)
Finding of the Body of St. Mark (1562-1566)
Removal of St. Mark’s Body (St. Mark’s Body Brought to Venice) (1562-1566)
Bacchus, Venus and Ariadne. Doge’s Palace, Venice (1576-1577)
The Origin of the Milky Way (c. 1575-1580)
Christ at the Sea of Galilee (1575-1580)
Self Portrait (1588)
The Last Supper. Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1590-1594)

Tintoretto's Rescue of Arsinoe.

Tintoretto’s Rescue of Arsinoe depicts a story from the time of Julius Caesar, in which Arsinoe, half-sister of Cleopatra, is rescued from imprisonment by Ganymedes.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo (Italy, 1526/1527-1593) painter
The Four Seasons: Winter (Vienna) (1563)
The Four Seasons: Winter (Houston) (1572)
The Four Seasons: Winter (Paris) (1573)
The Four Seasons: Winter (Munich) (c. 1550-1593)

Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted four versions of The Four Seasons using characters made of natural materials. Here is Winter from the version at The Menil Collection.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted four versions of The Four Seasons using characters made of natural materials. Pictured above is Winter from The Menil Collection in Houston.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Flanders, 1528-1569) painter
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus (c. 1555-1558) (probably a copy)
Netherlandish Proverbs (The Blue Cloak) (1559)
The Triumph of Death (1562)
The Tower of Babel (1563)
The Hunters in the Snow (1565)
The Census at Bethlehem (1566)
The Massacre of the Innocents (1565-1567)
The Peasant Wedding (1567)
The Parable of the Blind (The Blind Leading the Blind) (1568)

Detail from Pieter Bruegel the Elder's The Triumph of Death.

Detail from Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s The Triumph of Death.

Paolo Veronese (Paolo Caliari) (Italy, 1528-1588) painter
The Temptation of St. Anthony(St. Anthony Tempted by the Devil) (1552-1553)
Jupiter Striking down the Vices. Sala del Collegio, Doge’s Palace, Venice (c. 1553-1556)
Scenes from the Book of Esther. Church of San Sebastiano, Venice (1556-1557)
Supper at Emmaus (1559-1560)
Frescoes, Villa Barbaro (Villa di Maser). Maser, Italy (1560-1561)
The Wedding at Cana (The Marriage at Cana) (1562-1563)
The Family of Darius before Alexander (1565-1570)
Madonna of the Cuccina Family (The Adoration of the Virgin by the Cuccina Family) (1571)
Feast in the House of Simon (Version 1: 1560; Version 2: 1570; Version 3: 1572)
The Feast in the House of Levi (1573)
The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria (1575)
The Rape of Europa (1578)
Mars and Venus United by Love (1570s)
Allegory of Wisdom and Strength (c. 1580)
The Triumph of Venice (The Apotheosis of Venice). Sala del Maggior Consiglio, Doge’s Palace, Venice (1585)

The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, by Paolo Veronese.

The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, by Paolo Veronese.

Giambologna (Jean Boulogne) (Flanders/Italy, 1529-1608) sculptor
The Rape of the Sabine Women. Loggia dei Lanzi, Piazza della Signoria, Florence (1574-1583)

Giambologna's Rape of the Sabine Women, seen from below.

Giambologna’s Rape of the Sabine Women, seen from below.

Juan de Herrera (Spain, 1530-1597) architect
El Escorial. San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain (1567-1584)

Juan de Herrera designed numerous aspects of the El Escorial complex, including the library, shown above.

Spanish architect Juan de Herrera designed numerous aspects of the El Escorial complex, including the library, shown above.

Giacomo della Porta (Italy, c. 1533-1602) sculptor, architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1585-1590)

After Pope Sixtus put Giacomo della Porta in charge of finishing St. Peter's Basilica in 1585, della Porta made some adjustments to Michelangelo's design of the dome and completed this major portion of the project in 1590. © 2004 -- Ron Reznick http://www.digital-images.net [#Beginning of Shooting Data Section] Nikon D2H Focal Length: 85mm Optimize Image: Color Mode: Mode II (Adobe RGB) Noise Reduction: OFF 2004/11/03 03:30:04.3 Exposure Mode: Aperture Priority White Balance: Color Temp. (5900 K) Tone Comp: Less Contrast RAW (12-bit) Metering Mode: Multi-Pattern AF Mode: AF-C Hue Adjustment: 0° Image Size: Large (2464 x 1632) 1/400 sec - F/8 Flash Sync Mode: Not Attached Saturation: Exposure Comp.: +0.3 EV Sharpening: Normal Lens: 85mm F/1.4 D Sensitivity: ISO 200 Image Comment: [#End of Shooting Data Section]

After Pope Sixtus put Giacomo della Porta in charge of finishing St. Peter’s Basilica in 1585, della Porta made some adjustments to Michelangelo’s design of the dome and completed this major portion of the project in 1590. Photograph by Ron Reznick © 2004 http://www.digital-images.net

Hasegawa Tohaku (Japan, 1539-1610) painter, draftsman
Pine Trees (Pine Forest) (c. 1580)

One of two panels comprising Hasegawa Tohaku’s masterpiece Pine Trees.

Tuhir Das (India, c. 1540-c. 1610) architect
Fatehpur Sikri (multiple buildings). Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India (1571-1585)

Among the remarkable buildings in the planned city of Fatepur Sikri is the Panch Mahal palace, shown here.

Among the remarkable buildings in the planned city of Fatepur Sikri is the Panch Mahal palace. Fatepur Sikri was designed to be the capital city of the Mughal Emperor Akbar and was founded in 1569.

El Greco (Doménikos Theotokópoulos) (Greece/Spain, 1541-1614) painter
The Disrobing of Christ. Sacristy, Cathedral of Toledo, Toledo, Spain (1577-1579)
The Holy Trinity (1577-1579)
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz. Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain (1586-1588)
The Agony in the Garden (1590-1595)
View of Toledo (1596-1600)
Fray Hortensio Félix Paravicino (1609)
Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple (multiple versions) (c. 1600-1614)
The Opening of the Fifth Seal (The Vision of St. John) (1608-1614)
Laocoön (1610-1614)
The Adoration of the Shepherds (1612-1614)

El Greco's Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple, from about 1600 and now in the National Gallery in London, is one of six different paintings on the same theme that El Greco painted over his career.

El Greco’s Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple, from about 1600 and now in the National Gallery in London, is one of six different paintings on the same theme that El Greco painted over his career.

Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa (Albania/Turkey, c. 1540-1617) architect
Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque). Istanbul (1609-1616)

Ottoman architect Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa designed the Sultan Ahmed Mosque for Ottoman Sultan Ahmed in the early 17th Century. The interior is dominated by the multiple domes above, colored light from the stained glass windows and many thousands of mosaic tiles adorning the walls. The predominance of blue tiles has given the Istanbul shrine its popular name, "the Blue Mosque."

Ottoman architect Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa designed the Sultan Ahmed Mosque for Ottoman Sultan Ahmed in the early 17th Century. The interior is dominated by multiple domes overhead, colored light from the stained glass windows and many thousands of mosaic tiles. The predominance of blue tiles has given the Istanbul shrine its popular name, “the Blue Mosque.”

Nicholas Hilliard (UK: England, c. 1547-1619) painter
Young Man Among Roses (c. 1585-1590)

Some experts believe that the subject of Nicholas Hilliard's miniature, Young Man Among Roses, is Robert Devereaux, 2nd Earl of Essex, a favorite of Elizabeth I, even though he was 30 years her junior.

Some experts believe that the subject of Nicholas Hilliard’s miniature, Young Man Among Roses, is Robert Devereaux, 2nd Earl of Essex, a favorite of Elizabeth I, even though he was 30 years her junior.

Bahāʾ al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī (Shaykh-i Baha I) (Lebanon/Iran, 1547-1621) architect
Imam Mosque (Shah Mosque). Isfahan, Iran (1611-1629)

1611-1638 --- Aerial View of the Masjid-i Shah in Isfahan, Iran --- Image by © Roger Wood/CORBIS

Aerial View of the Masjid-i Shah in Isfahan, Iran. Photograph by Roger Wood. © Roger Wood/CORBIS

Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau (France, 1556-1614) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1595-1608)

Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau was one of two architects chosen to design the Galerie du Bord de l’Eau (Waterside Gallery), also known as the Grande Galerie., which connected the royal apartments in the Louvre with the Tuileries palace.

Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau was one of two architects chosen to design the Galerie du Bord de l’Eau (Waterside Gallery), also known as the Grande Galerie., which connects the royal apartments in the Louvre with the Tuileries palace.

Carlo Maderno (Italy, 1556-1629) architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1602-1615)

After being appointed chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica in 1602, Carlo Moderno designed and completed a number of projects, including the façade, the narthex and the nave, which is shown above.

After being appointed chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica in 1602, Carlo Moderno designed and completed a number of projects, including the façade, the narthex and the nave, which is shown above.

Annibale Carracci (Italy, 1560-1609) painter
Frescoes, Farnese Gallery Ceiling and Walls (The Loves of the Gods). Palazzo Farnese (French Embassy), Rome, Italy (1597-1608) (with his studio)

Detail of Annibale Carracci’s Farnese Gallery frescoes showing Diana and Endymion.

Louis Métezeau (France, 1560-1615) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1589-1610)

Louis Métezeau was one of two architects chosen to design the Grand Gallery connecting the Louvre with the Tuileries.

Louis Métezeau was one of two architects chosen to design the Grand Gallery connecting the Louvre with the Tuileries.

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) (Italy, 1573-1610) painter
Bacchus (c. 1595-1597)
Conversion of St. Paul on the Way to Damascus. Cerasi Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome (1600-1601)
Supper at Emmaus (1601)
The Calling of St. Matthew. Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1599-1600)
The Martyrdom of St. Matthew.
Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1599-1600) 
The Inspiration of St. Matthew.
Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1602)
The Entombment of Christ
(1602-1604)
Death of the Virgin (1604-1606)
The Burial of St. Lucy. Church of Santa Lucia alla Badia, Syracuse, Sicily (1608)

Detail of Caravaggio's The Conversion of Paul on the Way to Damascus, showing Paul, blinded and fallen from his horse.

Detail of Caravaggio’s Conversion of St. Paul on the Way to Damascus, showing Paul, blinded and fallen from his horse, in the spotlight.

Inigo Jones (UK: England, 1573-1652) architect
The Banqueting House. Whitehall, London (1619–1622)
The Queen’s Chapel. London (1623–1627)
The Queen’s House. Greenwich, UK (1616–1635)

A view of the interior of the Banqueting House, designed by Inigo Jones. Photo courtesy of gregallenphoto.com

A view of the interior of the Banqueting House, designed by Inigo Jones. Photo courtesy of gregallenphoto.com

Peter Paul Rubens (Flanders, 1577-1640) painter
The Honeysuckle Bower (1609)
Samson and Delilah (1609-1610)
Raising of the Cross (The Elevation of the Cross). Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium (1610-1611)
Massacre of the Innocents (1611-1612)
The Descent from the Cross. Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium (1611-1614)
The Battle of the Amazons (1615-1618)
Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1617-1618)
Disembarkation of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles (1621-1625)
Assumption of the Virgin. Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium (1626)
The Garden of Love (c. 1633)
A View of Het Steen in the Early Morning (c. 1636)
Landscape with a Rainbow (c. 1636)
The Judgment of Paris (1636-1639)
Consequences of War (Horrors of War). Palazzo Pitti (Pitti Palace), Florence (1638-1639)
The Three Graces (c. 1638-1640)

The Battle of the Amazons, a painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

The Battle of the Amazons, a painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

Adam Elsheimer (Germany/Italy, 1578-1610) painter
The Flight into Egypt (1609)

Adam Elsheimer's The Flight into Egypt is set at night, and includes one of the first accurate depictions of the Milky Way and several constellations, as seen in the detail above.

Adam Elsheimer’s The Flight into Egypt is set at night, and includes one of the first accurate depictions of the Milky Way and several constellations, as seen in the detail above.

Frans Hals (Flanders/The Netherlands, c.1580-1666) painter
Portrait of Jacobus Zaffius (1611)
Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Civic Guard (1616)
Shrovetide Revellers (Merrymakers at Shrovetide)
 (c. 1615-1617)
The Laughing Cavalier (1624)
Gypsy Girl (1628-1630)
The Merry Drinker (The Merry Toper) (1628-1630)
Malle Babbe (1633-1635)
Portrait of Pieter van den Broecke (1633)
The Regents of St. Elizabeth Hospital of Haarlem (1641)
Portrait of René Descartes (1649) (possibly a copy)
Regents of the Old Men’s Almshouse (1664)
Regentesses of the Old Men’s Almshouse (1664)

Malle Babbe (translated as Crazy or Loony Babs) was a real person who lived in Haarlem, The Netherlands in the early 17th Century. It is not clear if she was addled by alcoholism or some other mental illness.

Malle Babbe (Crazy or Loony Babs) was a real person who lived in Haarlem, The Netherlands in the early 17th Century. It is not clear if she was addled by alcoholism or some other mental illness.

Jean Androuet du Cerceau (France, c. 1585-1650) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1632-1634)

In the mid-17th Century architect Jean Androuet du Cerceau rebuilt the horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau.

In the mid-17th Century architect Jean Androuet du Cerceau rebuilt the horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau.

Jacques Lemercier (France, c. 1585-1654) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1624-1654)

A view of the east (Cour Carrée) facade of the Pavillon de l'Horloge at the Palais du Louvre, which was designed by Jacques Lecamier.

A view of the east (Cour Carrée) facade of the Pavillon de l’Horloge at the Palais du Louvre, which was designed by Jacques Lemercier.

Jusepe de Ribera (Spain, 1591-1652) painter, printmaker
The Club-Footed Boy (1642)

Detail of The Club-Footed Boy, by Jusepe de Ribera, showing the boy's ailment.

Detail of The Club-Footed Boy, by Jusepe de Ribera, showing the boy’s ailment.

Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) (Italy, 1591-1666) painter
Aurora. Casino dell’Aurora, Villa Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome, Italy (1621)

Detail of Guercino’s frescoes in the Casio dell’Aurora of the Villa Boncompagni Ludovisi.

Louis Le Nain (France, c. 1593-1648) painter
Peasant Family in an Interior (possibly by Antoine Le Nain) (1640-1642)

Detail from Peasant Family in an Interior.

Georges de la Tour (France, 1593-1652) painter
The Musicians’ Brawl (1625-1630)
The Cheat with the Ace of Diamonds (1635)
The Fortune Teller (1633-1639)
The Penitent Magdalen (New York) (c. 1640)
The Repentent Magdalen (Washington, D.C.) (1635-1640)
St. Joseph the Carpenter (The Young Christ with St. Joseph) (1642)
The Newborn Christ (c. 1645-1648)
St. Sebastian Tended by St. Irene (Paris) (1649)

The Musicians' Brawl, an early work by Georges de la Tour.

The Musicians’ Brawl, an early work by Georges de la Tour.

Nicolas Poussin (France, 1594-1665) painter
The Death of Germanicus (1627)
The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus (1629)
The Shepherds of Arcadia (Et in Arcadia Ego) (first version) (1627-1628)
Rinaldo and Armida (1629-1633)
The Rape of the Sabine Women (1637-1638)
The Arcadian Shepherds (Et in Arcadia Ego) (second version) (1637-1638)
Dance to the Music of Time (c. 1638)
The Seven Sacraments (first series) (1637-1640)
The Seven Sacraments (second series) (1644-1648)
The Funeral of Phocion (Landscape with the Body of Phocion). Three versions, including Glass House (Johnson House), New Canaan, Connecticut (1648)
Landscape with the Ashes of Phocion (The Widow of Phocion Collects His Ashes) (1648)
The Holy Family on the Steps (1648-1650)
Self-Portrait (1650)
The Four Seasons: I. Spring, or Terrestrial Paradise; II. Summer, or Ruth and Boaz; III. Autumn, or The Bunch of Grapes of the Promised Land; IV. Winter, or The Deluge (1660-1664)

Nicolas Poussin's painting Rinaldo and Armida is based characters from Torquato Tasso's 1582 epic poem, Jerusalem Delivered.

Nicolas Poussin’s painting Rinaldo and Armida is based on characters from Torquato Tasso’s 1582 epic poem, Jerusalem Delivered.

Pietro da Cortona (Italy, 1596/1597-1669) painter, architect
Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (The Triumph of Divine Providence). Palazzo Barberini, Rome (1633-1639)

Detail from the immense fresco painted by Cortona on the ceiling of the Barberini palace. This section shows the goddess Minerva battling the Giants.

Detail from the immense allegorical fresco painted by Pietro da Cortona on the ceiling of the Barberini palace in Rome. This section shows the goddess Minerva battling the Giants.

François Duquesnoy (Flanders/Italy, 1597-1643) sculptor
Statue of St. Andrew. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1629-1633)

Detail of the statue of St. Andrew in St. Peter's Basilica, which was created by Francois Duquesnoy.

Detail of the statue of St. Andrew in St. Peter’s Basilica, which was created by Francois Duquesnoy.

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italy, 1597-1654) painter
Susanna and the Elders (1610)
Judith Slaying Holofernes (Naples) (1612-1613)
Judith and Her Maidservant. Palazzo Pitti (Pitti Palace), Florence (1613-1614)
Allegory of Inclination (The Angel). Casa Buonarroti, Florence (1615-1616)
Judith Slaying Holofernes (Florence) (1618-1620)
Lucretia. Palazzo Cattaneo-Adorno, Genoa (1621)
Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes (c. 1625)
Sleeping Venus (1625-1630)
Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting (1638-1639)

Artemisia Gentileschi's 1621 painting of Lucretia, the Roman woman who was raped by the King and attempted suicide to avoid dishonor.

Artemisia Gentileschi’s 1621 painting of Lucretia, the Roman woman who was raped by the King and attempted suicide to avoid dishonor.

Pieter Jansz. Saenredam (The Netherlands, 1597-1665)
Interior of Grote Kerk in Haarlem (1636-1637)

Detail from Pieter Saenredam's Interior of Grote Kerk, Haarlem.

Detail from Pieter Saenredam’s Interior of Grote Kerk in Haarlem, one of many paintings Saenredam made of Dutch churches.

Alessandro Algardi (Italy, 1598-1654) sculptor
Pope Leo Driving Attila from Rome (The Meeting of Leo I and Attila). St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1646-1653)

Allesandro Algardi's marble rendering of the legendary meeting between Pope Leo I and Attila the Hun at the gates of Rome brought relief sculpture back into fashion in Italy.

Detail of Allesandro Algardi’s marble rendering of the legendary meeting between Pope Leo I and Attila the Hun at the gates of Rome.  The enormous panel – nearly 25 feet tall – brought relief sculpture back into fashion in Italy.

Francisco de Zurbarán (Spain, 1598-1664) painter
Immaculate Conception (1616)
Christ on the Cross (1627)
The Martyrdom of St. Serapion (1628)
The Death of St. Bonaventure (St. Bonaventure’s Body Lying in State) (1629)
The Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas (1631)
Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose (1633)
The Labors of Hercules (series of 10 paintings) (1633)
The Defense of Cadiz against the English (1634)
St. Francis in Meditation (London, erect posture) (1635-1639)
St. Francis in Meditation (London, leaning forward) (1639)
St. Francis in Meditation (Munich) (1658-1660)
St. Luke as a Painter before Christ on the Cross (1660)

The Defense of Cadiz against the English was an uncharacteristic subject for Spanish painter Francisco de Zurbarán, who specialized in religious portraits and still lifes.

The Defense of Cadiz Against the English, a scene from recent Spanish history, was an uncharacteristic subject for Zurbarán, who specialized in religious portraits and still lives.  The work was one of several commissioned by the king from Spanish painters to decorate the Hall of Kingdoms at the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italy, 1598-1680) sculptor, painter, architect
The Goat Amalthea with the Infant Jupiter and a Faun (1609-1615)
The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1617)
Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Rome (1618-1619)
The Rape of Persephone (Pluto and Persephone) (1621-1622)
David (1622-1623)
Apollo and Daphne (1622-1625)
Baldacchino, St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1624-1625)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1506-1626)
Fountain of the Tritons (Fontana dei Tritone). Piazza Barberini, Rome (1624-1643)
Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers). Piazza Navone, Rome (1648-1651)
The Ecstasy of St. Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome (1651)
Cathedra Petri (Throne of St. Peter). St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1657-1666)
St. Peter’s Square (Piazza San Pietro). Vatican City (1656-1667)
Church of Sant’Andrea al Quirinale. Rome (1658-1670)
Tomb of Pope Alexander VII. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1671-1675)

Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Rome is an early sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Rome is an early sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Anthony van Dyck (Flanders/Italy/UK: England, 1599-1641)
Charles I at the Hunt (Le Roi à la chasse) (1635)

Detail of Anthony van Dyck's Charles I at the Hunt, one of his many portraits of the English king later beheaded by Cromwell's Puritans.

Detail of Anthony van Dyck’s Charles I at the Hunt, one of his many portraits of the English king later beheaded by Cromwell’s Puritans.

Antoine Le Nain (France, c. 1593-1648) painter
Peasant Family in an Interior (possibly by Louis Le Nain) (1640-1642)

Detail from Peasant Family in an Interior.

Diego Velázquez (Spanish, 1599-1660) painter
The Waterseller of Seville (1620)
Portrait of Don Luis de Góngora (1622)
Portrait of Philip IV (full-length, Madrid) (1624–1627)
The Triumph of Bacchus (Los Borrachos) (1628–1629)
Joseph’s Bloody Coat brought to Jacob (Joseph’s Tunic). El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain (1630)
Equestrian Portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares (1634)
The Surrender of Breda (1634–1635)
Portrait of Juan de Pareja (1649–1650)
Portrait of Innocent X (1650)
Las Meninas (1656)

The Equestrian Portrait of Count Duke Olivares, by Diego Velázquez.

The Equestrian Portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares, by Diego Velázquez.

Ustad Ahmad Lahauri (Persia/India, c. 1600-c. 1670) architect
Taj Mahal. Agra, India (1632-1648)

A view of the Taj Mahal's dome from inside.

A view of the Taj Mahal’s dome from inside.

Claude Lorrain (France, 1600-1682) painter
Port Scene with the Embarkation of St. Ursula (London) (1641)
The Disembarkation of Cleopatra at Tarsus (Paris) (1642)
Marine with the Trojans Burning their Boats (The Trojan Women Setting Fire to their Fleet) (NY) (1642)
Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba (London) (1648)
Landscape with Dancing Figures (The Mill) (Rome) (1648)
A Seaport at Sunrise (Munich) (1674)
Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia (Oxford) (1682)

Claude Lorrain's Landscape with Dancing Figures, also known as The Mill.

Claude Lorrain’s Landscape with Dancing Figures, also known as The Mill.

Adriaen Brouwer (Flanders/The Netherlands, 1605-1638)
The Bitter Draught (The Bitter Tonic) (c. 1635-1638)

Detail of Adrien Brouwer's The Bitter Tonic.

Detail of Adrien Brouwer’s The Bitter Tonic.

Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn) (The Netherlands, 1606-1669) painter, printmaker
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632)
The Night Watch (1642)
The Supper at Emmaus (1648)
The Hundred Guilder Print (Christ Preaching) (c. 1647-1649) engraving
The Three Crosses (c. 1653) engraving
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (1653-1654)
Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph (1656)
The Betrayal of Peter (The Denial of St. Peter) (1660)
The Syndics of the Cloth-Makers Guild (The Staalmeesters) (1662)
The Jewish Bride (c. 1662-1667)
Self-Portrait with Two Circles (c. 1665-1669)
The Return of the Prodigal Son (1668-1669)

Detail of Rembrandt's The Night Watch.

Detail of Rembrandt’s The Night Watch.

Louis Le Vau (France, 1612-1670) architect
Palace of Versailles. Versailles (1661-1670)
Palais du Louvre.
Paris (1667-1670)

The main façade of the envelope at the Palace of Versailles, which was designed by Louis le Vau.

The main façade of the envelope at the Palace of Versailles, which was designed by Louis le Vau.

Claude Perrault (France, 1613-1688) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1667-1670)

Claude Perrault designed the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre, which is known as Perrault's Colonnade.

Claude Perrault designed the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre, which is known as Perrault’s Colonnade.

Pierre Puget (France, 1620-1694) painter, sculptor, architect
Milo of Croton Attacked by a Lion (1671-1682)

Detail of Pierre Puget's Milo of Croton Attacked by a Lion.

Detail of Pierre Puget’s Milo of Croton Attacked by a Lion.

Jan Steen (The Netherlands, c. 1626-1679) painter
The Feast of St. Nicholas (St. Nicholas Eve) (c. 1665-1668)

Detail from Jan Steen’s The Feast of St. Nicholas.

Jacob van Ruisdael (The Netherlands, c. 1629-1682) painter
The Jewish Cemetery (Detroit) (1654-1655)
The Jewish Cemetery (Dresden) (1655-1660)

Detail of Jacob van Ruisdael's The Jewish Cemetery (Detroit version).

Detail of Jacob van Ruisdael’s The Jewish Cemetery (Detroit version).

Pieter de Hooch (The Netherlands, 1629-1684) painter
A Dutch Courtyard (1658-1660)

Detail of Pieter de Hooch's A Dutch Courtyard, in which two soldiers appear to have included their server in a drinking game.

Detail of Pieter de Hooch’s A Dutch Courtyard, in which two soldiers appear to have included their server in a drinking game.

Johannes (Jan) Vermeer (The Netherlands, 1632-1675) painter
Christ in the House of Martha and Mary (1654-1655)
Diana and her Companions (1654-1656)
The Procuress (1656)
The Little Street  (1657-1658)
The Milkmaid (1657-1658)
View of Delft (1660-1661)
Young Woman with a Water Pitcher (Woman with a Water Jug) (1660-1662)
Woman Holding a Balance (1662-1663)
Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (1663-1664)
Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665)
The Allegory of Painting (The Artist in his Studio) (1666)
Girl with a Red Hat (attribution in question) (1665-1667)
The Geographer (1668-1669)

The inclusion of a painting of The Last Judgment in the background of Vermeer's Woman Holding A Balance has led many to conclude that it is a religious allegory or parable.

The inclusion of a painting of The Last Judgment in the background of Vermeer’s Woman Holding A Balance has led many to conclude that it is a religious allegory or parable, although there is no consensus on the exact meaning intended.

Sir Christopher Wren (UK: England, 1632-1723) architect
Sheldonian Theatre. Oxford (1664-1668)
Royal Observatory. Greenwich, UK (1675-1676)
Monument to the Great Fire of London. With Robert Hooke. London (1671-1677)
Trinity College Library. Cambridge (1676-1684)
Royal Hospital. Chelsea, London (1682-1692)
Façade, Hampton Court Palace. Richmond-upon-Thames, Greater London (1689-1700)
St. Paul’s Cathedral (Cathedral Church of St. Paul the Apostle). London (1673-1711)
Royal Naval Hospital. Greenwich, UK (1696-1715)

A portion of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, UK, which was designed by Christopher Wren.

A portion of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, UK, which was designed by Christopher Wren.

Andrea Pozzo (Italy, 1642-1709) painter
The Apotheosis of St. Ignatius. Church of Sant’Ignazio. Rome, Italy (1685-1694)

Detail of Andrea Pozzo’s massive fresco in the Church of Saint Ignatius in Rome.

Jules Hardouin-Mansart
(France, 1646-1708) architect
Palace of Versailles. Versailles (1675-1708)
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1676-1708)

Jules Hardouin-Mansart designed many aspects of the Palace of Versailles, including the Orangerie, shown here. Photo by Rachel Kaplan.

Jules Hardouin-Mansart designed many aspects of the Palace of Versailles, including the Orangerie, shown here. Photo by Rachel Kaplan.

Robert de Cotte (France, 1656-1735) architect
Palace of Versailles. Versailles (1685-1710)

Architect Robert de Cotte designed several parts of the Palace of Versailles, including the Salon d'Hercules.

Architect Robert de Cotte designed several parts of the Palace of Versailles, including the Salon d’Hercules, with its marvelous ceiling fresco.

Hyacinthe Rigaud (France, 1659-1743) painter
Portrait of Louis XIV (1701)

Detail of Rigaud's Portrait of Louis XIV, showing the king's feet.

Detail of Rigaud’s Portrait of Louis XIV, showing the king’s feet.

Nicholas Hawksmoor (UK: England, c. 1661-1736) architect
West Towers, Westminster Abbey. London (1722-1745)

Nicholas Hawksmoor designed the West Towers of Westminster Abbey.

Guillaume Coustou the Elder (France, 1677-1746) sculptor
Horses Restrained by Grooms (The Marly Horses) (1739-1745)

A view of one of the pair of sculptures by Coustou known as The Marly Horses.

A view of one of the pair of sculptures by Guillaume Coustou the Elder known as The Marly Horses.

Jean-Antoine Watteau (France, 1684-1721) painter
Embarkation for Cythera (1717)
Pierrot, formerly known as Gilles (1719)
The Italian Comedians (1720)
Mezzetin (1720)
L’Enseigne de Geraint (1720-1721)
Pilgrimage to Cythera (1721)

L’Enseigne de Geraint, a painting by Jean-Antoine Watteau.

L’Enseigne de Geraint, by Jean-Antoine Watteau, was intended to be a shop sign for his friend Edme Francois Geraint, an art dealer.

Balthasar Neumann (Germany, 1687-1753) architect
Würzburg Residenz. Würzburg, Germany (1720-1744)
Schloss Bruchsal (Bruchsal Palace). Bruchsal, Germany (1728–1750)
Interior, St. Paulinus’ Church. Trier, Germany (1734-1757)
Basilika Vierzehnheiligen (Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers). Bad Staffelstein, Germany (1743-1772)
Neresheim Abbey (Abbey of Sts. Ulrich and Afra). Neresheim, Germany (1747–1792)

A view of the interior of Balthazar Neumann's Schloss Bruchsal.

A view of the interior of Balthasar Neumann’s Schloss Bruchsal, showing the double staircases.

Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II (India, 1688-1743) political leader, scientist
Jantar Mantar (five locations including Jaipur & Delhi, India) (1726-1735)

The Samrat Yantra, shown here at Jaipur, at 90 feet tall, is the largest instrument of the Jantar Mantar. It functions as a giant sundial.

The Samrat Yantra, shown here at Jaipur, at 90 feet tall, is the largest instrument of the Jantar Mantar. It functions as a giant sundial.

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italy, 1696-1770) painter, printmaker
Frescoes, Würzburg Residence. Würzburg, Germany (1750-1753)
Abraham and the Three Angels (c. 1770)

Detail of the immense ceiling fresco known as Apollo and the Continents by Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, showing a host of angels carrying the portrait of the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. heavenward.

Detail of the immense ceiling fresco known as Apollo and the Continents by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, showing a host of angels carrying the portrait of the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. heavenward.

William Hogarth (UK: England, 1697-1764) painter, engraver, printmaker
Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme (c. 1721)
The Bad Taste of the Town (Masquerades and Operas) (1724)
A Harlot’s Progress (series of six) (1731)
A Rake’s Progress (series of eight) (1732-1733)
Four Times of the Day (set of four) (1738)
Portrait of Captain Thomas Coram (1740)
Marriage à-la-mode (series of six) (1743-1745)
Industry and Idleness (series of twelve) (1747)
The Gate of Calais (The Roast Beef of Old England) (1749)
Beer Street and Gin Lane (two prints) (1751)
The Four Stages of Cruelty (set of four) (1751)

In ___, William Hogarth produced two prints warning of the evils of alcohol abuse, Beer Street (shown above) and Gin Lane.

In 1751, William Hogarth produced two prints in support of legislation restricting the availability of hard liquor.  Gin Lane shows the horrors of drinking gin, while Beer Street (shown above) celebrates the conviviality induced by drinking beer.

Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (Italy, 1697-1768) painter, printmaker
The Stonemason’s Yard (Venice: Campo Santa Vidal and Santa Maria Della Carita) (1725-1730)
The Bucintoro Returning to the Molo on Ascension Day (1730)

Detail of Canaletto's painting The Stonemason's Yard.

Detail of Canaletto’s painting The Stonemason’s Yard.

Ange-Jacques Gabriel (France, 1698-1782) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1750-1754)

Ange-Jacques Gabriel designed the Gros Pavilion at the end of the Louis XV wing of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Ange-Jacques Gabriel designed the Gros Pavilion at the end of the Louis XV wing of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin (France, 1699-1779) painter
The Ray (The Skate) (1728)
The Buffet (1728)
Woman Sealing a Letter (c. 1733)
Boy with a Top (Child with Top) (c. 1735)
The Young Schoolmistress (c. 1735-1736)
The Young Draughtsman (1737)
Return from the Market (1739)
The Governess (1739)
The Soap Bubble (Blowing Bubbles) (1739)
The Kitchen Maid (Woman Cleaning Turnips) (1738-1740)
Saying Grace (The Prayer Before Meal; Le Bénédicité) (1740)
Still Life with Jar of Olives (1760)
The Silver Goblet (1769)
Self-Portrait with an Eyeshade (1775)

Saying Grace, by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, is one of many paintings depicting the life and habits of the growing French middle class.

Saying Grace, by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, is one of many paintings depicting the life and habits of the growing French middle class.

François Boucher (France, 1703-1770) painter
Venus Demanding Arms from Vulcan for Aeneas (1732)
The Rape of Europa (1732-1734)
Rinaldo and Armida (1734)
Diana Leaving Her Bath (1742)
The Interrupted Sleep (1750)
The Toilet of Venus (1751)
Resting Girl (Louise O’Murphy) (Cologne) (1751)
Nude Lying on a Sofa (Girl Reclining; Louise O’Murphy) (Munich) (1752)
Madame de Pompadour (Munich) (1756)
Madame de Pompadour (London) (1758)
Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas (1757)

A painter of the French Court, Boucher often applied his Rococo style to mythological subjects, as here in Diana Leaving Her Bath.

A painter of the French Court, Boucher often applied his Rococo style to mythological subjects, as here in Diana Leaving Her Bath.

Pompeo Batoni (Italy, 1708-1787) painter
Portrait of Thomas William Coke. Holkham Hall, Holkham, UK (1773-1774)

Detail of Pompeo Batoni's Portrait of Thomas William Coke. Batoni's specialty was painting souvenir portraits for Britons visiting Italy on the Grand Tour.

Detail of Pompeo Batoni’s Portrait of Thomas William Coke, showing the subject’s clothing. Batoni’s specialty was painting souvenir portraits for Britons visiting Italy on the Grand Tour.

Francesco Guardi (Italy, 1712-1793) painter
The Gray Lagoon (Gondolas on the Lagoon) (1765)

Like Canaletto, Francesco Guardi specialized in Venetian veduta, highly detailed paintings of the city's sights. The Gray Lagoon is atypical in its sparseness.

Like Canaletto, Francesco Guardi specialized in Venetian vedute, highly detailed paintings of the city’s sights. The Gray Lagoon is atypical in its sparseness.

Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (France, 1714-1785) sculptor
Mercury Attaching His Wings (Mercury Tying His Sandals). Two versions: (1) The Louvre, Paris, France; (2) Sans Souci Castle, Berlin, Germany (1739-1745)
Voltaire (1776)

Detail of Pigalle's statue of Voltaire, showing the hand. The sculpture was attacked at the time for its 'warts and all' realism.

Detail of Pigalle’s statue of Voltaire, showing the hand. The sculpture was attacked at the time for its ‘warts and all’ realism.

Étienne-Maurice Falconet (France, 1716-1791) sculptor
Monument to Peter the Great (The Bronze Horseman). Senate Square, St. Petersburg (1770-1782)

A view of Falconet's Monument to Peter the Great, in St. Petersburg.

A view of Falconet’s Monument to Peter the Great, in St. Petersburg.

George Stubbs (England: 1724-1806) painter
A Lion Attacking A Horse (New Haven, Connecticut) (1762)
A Lion Attacking a Horse (Melbourne) (1765)
Horse Attacked by a Lion (A Lion Attacking a Horse) (London) (1769)
A Lion Attacking A Horse (New Haven, Connecticut) (1770)

George Stubbs painted at least 16 canvases on the subject of a lion attacking a horse. This one is from 1765 and is now in the National Gallery of Victoria, in Melbourne, Australia.

Thomas Gainsborough (England, 1727-1788) painter
Conversation in a Park (1745)
Mr. and Mrs. Andrews (1748-1750)
The Painter’s Daughters Chasing a Butterfly (1756)
Portrait of Ann Ford (later Mrs. Thicknesse) (1760)
Portrait of Mary, Countess Howe (1760-1764)
River Landscape (1768-1770)
Jonathan Buttall (The Blue Boy) (1770)
Portrait of Mrs. Graham (1775-1777)
The Watering Place (1777)
The Cottage Door (Cincinnati) (1778)
The Cottage Door (Huntington Library) (1780)
Portrait of a Lady in Blue (1780)
The Mall in St. James Park (1784)
Mr. and Mrs. William Hallett (The Morning Walk) (1785)
Portrait of Mrs. Sarah Siddons (1785)
Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1785-1787)
Her Grace Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1785-1787)

Thomas Gainsbourough's portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Hallett is also known as The Morning Walk.

Thomas Gainsbourough’s portrait of Mr. and Mrs. William Hallett is also known as The Morning Walk.

Jean-Honoré Fragonard (France, 1732-1806) painter, printmaker
The Swing (1767)

Detail of Fragonard's Rococo painting The Swing, showing the lady swinger's cuckold husband and two Cupids.

Detail of Fragonard’s Rococo painting The Swing, showing the lady swinger’s cuckolded husband and two Cupids.

Joseph Wright of Derby (UK: England, 1734-1797) painter
An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1767-1768)

Detail from Joseph Wright of Derby's An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, showing the scientist and his victim.

Detail from Joseph Wright of Derby’s An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, showing the scientist and his victim.

Matvey Kazakov (Russia, 1738-1812) architect
The Kremlin (Kremlin Senate). Moscow (1776-1787)

Matsay Kruschev designed the Kremlin Senate in Moscow, shown here.

Matvay Kazakov designed the Kremlin Senate in Moscow, shown here.

John Singleton Copley (US/UK: England, 1738-1815) painter
Watson and the Shark (Washington, D.C.) (1778)
Watson and the Shark (Boston) (copy by Copley) (1778)
Watson and the Shark (Detroit) (1782)

Detail of John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark.

Detail of John Singleton Copley’s original painting of Watson and the Shark.

Benjamin West (US/UK, 1738-1820) painter
The Death of General Wolfe (1770)

Detail from Benjamin West's Death of General Wolfe.

Detail from Benjamin West’s Death of General Wolfe.

Henry Fuseli (Switzerland/UK: England, 1741-1825) painter, draughtsman
The Nightmare (1781)

Detail of Fuseli's Nightmare, showing the incubus sitting on the sleeping woman's chest.

Detail of Fuseli’s Nightmare, showing the incubus sitting on the sleeping woman’s chest.

Jean-Antoine Houdon (France, 1741-1828) sculptor
Portrait of Voltaire, Seated (1781)

A side view of Houdon's Voltaire, Seated.

A side view of Houdon’s Voltaire, Seated.

Thomas Jefferson (US, 1743-1826) architect
Virginia State Capitol. With Charles-Louis Clérisseau. Richmond, Virginia (1788)
Addition, George Divers House (now ‘Jefferson Room’, Farmington Country Club). Charlottesville, Virginia (1802-1803)
Monticello. Near Charlottesville, Virginia (1768–1809)
Barboursville (House of James Barbour). Barboursville, Virginia (1822) (burned 1884, leaving ruins)
Charlotte County Courthouse. Charlotte Courthouse, Virginia (1822-1823)
Poplar Forest. Near Lynchburg, Virginia (1806–1826)
Academical Village, University of Virginia (including The Lawn and the Rotunda). Charlottesville, Virginia (1817-1826) (rotunda burned 1895, rebuilt 1898-1899)

The foyer of Monticello, the home that Thomas Jefferson for himself and his family in Virginia.

The foyer of Monticello, the home that Thomas Jefferson for himself and his family in Virginia.

Francisco Goya (Spain, 1746-1828) painter, printmaker
Los Caprichos (The Caprices) (series of 80 prints) (1797-1799)
The Naked Maja (1797-1800)
Charles IV of Spain and His Family (1800-1801)
The Clothed Maja (1800-1805)
The Colossus (1808-1812) (attribution in question)
The Third of May, 1808 (1814)
Disasters of War (series of 82 prints) (1810-1820)
Saturn Devouring His Son (1819-1823)
Witches’ Sabbath (The Great He-Goat) (1819-1823)
Fantastic Vision (Asmodea) (1819-1823)
A Pilgrimage to San Isidro (1819-1823)
The Dog (1819-1823)

Detail from Goya's Third of May, 1808.

Detail from Goya’s Third of May, 1808.

Jacques-Louis David (France, 1748-1825) painter, draughtsman
Belisarius Begging for Alms (1781)
Andromache Mourning Hector (1783)
The Oath of the Horatii (1785)
The Death of Socrates (1787)
The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons (1789)
Death of Marat (1793)
The Tennis Court Oath (1790-1794)
The Intervention of the Sabine Women (1799)
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass) (1800-1801)
Portrait of Madame Récamier 
(1800)
The Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon and the Coronation of Empress Joséphine on December 2, 1804 (The Coronation of Napoleon) (1807)
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries (1812)
Mars Being Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces (1824)

Jacques-Louis David's The Intervention of the Sabine Women.

Jacques-Louis David’s The Intervention of the Sabine Women.

Kitagawa Utamaro (Japan, c. 1753-1806) painter, printmaker
Poem of the Pillow (1788)
Ten Types in the Physiognomic Study of Women (series of prints) (1792–1793)
Three Beauties of the Present Day (c. 1793)
Portrait of the Waitress Okita from the Naniwaya Teahouse (1793)
Great Themes in Classical Love Poetry (Women in Love)
 (series of prints) (1793–1794)
Array of Supreme Beauties of the Present Day (series of prints) (1794)
The Chushingura Drama Parodied by Famous Beauties (series of 12 prints) (1794-1795)
Twelve Hours in the Pleasure Quarters of Yoshiwara (Twelve Hours of the Green Houses) (series of prints) (1794–1795)
Woman Wiping Sweat (1798)

Woman Wiping Away Sweat, a ukiyo-e print by Kitigawa Utamaro.

Woman Wiping Sweat, a ukiyo-e woodblock print by Kitigawa Utamaro.

Henry Raeburn (UK: Scotland, 1756-1823) painter
The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch (The Skating Minister) (attribution in question) (c. 1795-1799)

Detail of The Skating Minister, which many believe is not the work of Henry Raeburn but of French painter Henri-Pierre Danloux.

Detail of The Skating Minister, which many believe is not the work of Henry Raeburn but of French painter Henri-Pierre Danloux.

Antonio Canova (Italy, 1757-1822) sculptor
Psyche Revived by Cupid’s Kiss (Psyche Awakened by Eros; Psyche and Cupid) (1787-1793)

Detail of Canova's Psyche Awakened by Cupid's Kiss.

Detail of Canova’s Psyche Awakened by Cupid’s Kiss.

William Blake (UK England, 1757-1827) painter, printmaker
Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing (1786)
Songs of Innocence (1789)
The Ancient of Days (illustration for Europe: A Prophecy) (1794)
The Body of Abel found by Adam and Eve (c. 1825-1826)
The Circle of the Lustful: Francesca da Rimini (The Lovers’ Whirlwind) (illustration for The Divine Comedy: Inferno) (1826-1827)
Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion (1804-1820)
The Book of Job (1826)

William Blake's The Body of Abel found by Adam and Eve.

William Blake’s The Body of Abel found by Adam and Eve.

James Hoban (Ireland/US, c. 1758-1831) architect
The White House. Washington D.C. (1792-1801)

After designing the original White House, James Hoban rebuilt the South Portico (shown here) in 1824 following the burning of the building in the War of 1812. The second floor porch was added during the Truman Administration.

After designing the original White House, James Hoban rebuilt the South Portico (shown here) in 1824 following the burning of the building in the War of 1812. The second floor porch was added during the Truman Administration.

William Thornton (UK: England/US, 1759-1828) painter, architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1793-1802)

A model of William Thornton's original design for the U.S. Capitol.

A model of William Thornton’s original design for the U.S. Capitol.

Katsushika Hokusai (Japan, 1760-1849) painter, printmaker
Hokusai Manga (15 volumes) (1814)
The Great Wave off Kanagawa (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
South Wind, Clear Sky (Red Fuji) (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
A Storm Below the Summit (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
The Coast of Seven Leagues in Kamakura (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
Nihonbashi Bridge in Edo (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji (series) (1834)
Peonies and Butterfly (1834)
The Dragon of Smoke Escaping from Mt. Fuji (1849)

Two facing pages showing prints from Katshushika Hokusai's woodblock series One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji.

Two facing pages showing a print from Katshushika Hokusai’s woodblock series One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji.

Charles Bulfinch (US, 1763-1844) architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1818-1829)

Charles Bulfinch designed the central, domed building of the Capitol, shown here in 1846. The dome was replaced in the 1860s after the extension of the east and west wings.

Charles Bulfinch designed the central, domed building of the Capitol, shown here in 1846. The Pantheon-style dome was replaced by a much larger white dome in the 1860s after the extension of the north and south wings.

Benjamin Henry Latrobe (UK: England/US, 1764-1820) architect
The White House. Washington, D.C. (1801)
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1803-1817)

Benjamin Latrobe designed much of the original interior space of the U.S. Capitol, including the original Supreme Court chamber, shown here.

Benjamin Latrobe designed much of the original interior space of the U.S. C