I collected over 20 lists of the greatest/most important scientists of all time and compiled them into one meta-list. The results are below: every scientist on two or more of the original source lists, organized by rank (that is, with the scientists on the most lists at the top). Where there are multiple scientists on the same number of lists, they are arranged chronologically by date of birth.
NOTE: These are not my personal opinions.
To see another version of the list organized chronologically, go here.
On 19 lists
Albert Einstein (Germany/US, 1879-1955)
Theoretical physicist. The special and general theories of relativity. The photoelectric effect. Brownian motion. E=mc2. E=hf. Einstein field equations. Bose–Einstein statistics. Bose–Einstein condensate. Gravitational wave. Cosmological constant. Unified field theory. EPR paradox. Relativity: The Special and General Theory (1916). Ideas and Opinions (1995). (Nobel Prize in Physics 1921)
Albert Einstein in Vienna in 1921. Photo by F. Schmutzer.
On 17 lists
Galileo Galilei (Italy, 1564-1642)
Physicist, astronomer, mathematician, inventor, engineer and philosopher. The law of falling bodies. The moons of Jupiter. Sunspots. The phases of Venus. Confirmed heliocentrism. Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger) (1610). Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632).
Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Giusto Sustermans in 1636.
Sir Isaac Newton (England, 1643-1727)
Physicist, mathematician and inventor. Classical mechanics and the universal laws of motion. The law of universal gravitation. Calculus. Binomial series. The light spectrum and particle theory of light. The reflecting telescope. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). Opticks (1704).
Portrait of Sir Isaac Newton painted in 1689 by Sir Godfrey Kneller.
Marie Curie (Poland/France, 1867-1934)
Physicist and chemist. Radioactivity. Discovered radium and polonium. Radioactive Substances (1904). (Nobel Prize in Physics 1903; Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911)
Marie Curie in 1920.
On 15 lists
James Clerk Maxwell (UK: Scotland, 1831-1879)
Physicist and mathematician. Electromagnetism (relationship of electricity, magnetism and light). The wave theory of light. Color vision and color photography. The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. A Dynamic Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). Matter and Motion (1888). A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1904).
An undated portrait of James Clerk Maxwell. This is an engraving by G. J. Stodart, based on a photograph by Fergus of Greenock.
On 14 lists
Michael Faraday (UK: England, 1791-1867)
Experimental physicist, chemist and inventor. Electrochemistry. Electromagnetic induction. Diamagnetism. Laws of electrolysis. Nanoparticles. Benzene. Oxidation numbers. Faraday effect. Faraday disc (first electric generator). Faraday cage. Chemical History of a Candle (1861).
Photograph of Michael Faraday from about 1861, probably taken by John Watkins.
Charles Darwin (UK: England, 1809-1882)
Biologist, naturalist and geologist. Evolution by means of natural selection. Human evolution. Sexual selection. Formation of atolls. Phototropism in plants. Role of earthworms in soil formation. The Voyage of the Beagle (1845). The Origin of Species (1859). The Descent of Man (1871). The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
Photograph of Charles Darwin in 1857.
Louis Pasteur (France, 1822-1895)
Microbiologist and chemist. The germ theory of disease. Vaccination using weakened bacteria. Pasteurization. The cause of fermentation. Disproving spontaneous generation. Asymmetry of crystals. Racemization. Optical isomers.
An 1878 photograph of Louis Pasteur by Nadar.
On 11 lists
Aristotle (Ancient Greece, 384-322 BCE)
Philosopher and scientist. Early theory and observation in all fields of science and medicine. Scala naturae. Physics. History of Animals. Generation of Animals. Movement of Animals. Parts of Animals. On the Soul (De Anima) (c. 330 BCE).
This marble bust of Aristotle is a Roman copy of a Greek bronze original by Lysippos, c. 330 BCE. The alabaster mantle is more recent.
Nikola Tesla (Serbia/US 1856-1943)
Electrical and mechanical engineer, inventor and physicist. Alternating current. The alternating current induction motor. The electric light. The Tesla coil. X-rays. Radio remote control vehicle.
An 1890 photograph of Nicolas Tesla by Napoleon Sarony.
Neils Bohr (Denmark, 1885-1962)
Theoretical and experimental physicist. Quantum atomic structure. Bohr model. Correspondence principle. Complementarity. Quantum mechanics. Electron complementarity. Institute of Theoretical Physics. Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature (1934). (Nobel Prize in Physics 1922)
Niels Bohr in 1922.
Stephen Hawking (UK: England, 1942-2018)
Theoretical physicist and cosmologist. Quantum gravity. The nature of black holes. The origin of galaxies. Hawking radiation. The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (with George Ellis) (1973). A Brief History of Time (1988).
Stephen Hawking during a visit to NASA in the 1980s.
On 10 lists
Archimedes (Ancient Greece, c. 287-c. 212 BCE)
Physicist, mathematician, engineer and astronomer. Archimedes’ principle. Principle of the lever. The Archimedes screw. The mathematical precursors to calculus, including infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion. The planetarium. The war catapult. Claw of Archimedes. On the Equilibrium of Planes. On the Measurement of a Circle. On Spirals. On the Sphere and the Cylinder. On Floating Bodies. The Quadrature of the Parabola. The Sand Reckoner. The Method of Mechanical Theorems.
A 1620 painting of Archimedes by Domenico Fetti.
On 9 lists
Leonardo da Vinci (Italy, 1452-1519)
Artist, engineer, mathematician, anatomist, botanist, geologist and cartographer. Human anatomy. Fossils. Designed: a parachute; a helicopter; an armored vehicle; an adding machine; a double-hulled ship; automated bobbin winder; wire-strength testing machine. Notebooks.
Self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci from about 1512.
John Dalton (England, 1766-1844)
Chemist, meteorologist and physicist. Atomic theory. Table of atomic weights. Color blindness. Law of multiple proportions. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures.
An 1834 portrait of John Dalton by Charles Turner.
On 8 lists
Nicolaus Copernicus (Royal Prussia, now Poland, 1473-1543)
Astronomer and mathematician. The heliocentric model of the solar system. Copernicus’ Law. Copernican principle. On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543).
A 1580 portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus. It is located in the Town Hall of Toruń, Poland.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (France, 1743-1794)
Chemist. The nature of combustion. The law of conservation of mass. Nature of hydrogen and oxygen. Stoichiometry. Disproving phlogiston theory. Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789).
Gregor Mendel (Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic, 1822-1884)
Botanist and geneticist. The laws of heredity (Mendelian inheritance). Science of genetics. Experiments on Plant Hybridization (1865).
A photograph of Gregor Mendel.
Thomas Alva Edison (US, 1847-1931)
Inventor. The incandescent light bulb. The phonograph. The movie camera and projector. Stock ticker. Mechanical vote recorder. The electric power grid. First industrial research laboratory.
A 1922 photograph of Thomas Edison by Louis Bachrach.
Max Planck (Germany, 1858-1947)
Theoretical physicist. Quantum theory. Planck constant. Planck’s law of black body radiation. Third law of thermodynamics. Fokker-Planck equation. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1918)
A 1915 photograph of Max Planck.
Ernest Rutherford (NZ/UK, 1871-1937)
Theoretical and experimental physicist. The atomic nucleus. The structure of the atom. The proton. The neutron. Alpha and beta radioactivity. Radioactive half-life. Radio-activity (1904). Radioactive Transformations (1906). Radioactive Substances and their Radiations (1913). (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908)
A photograph of Ernest Rutherford.
Edwin Hubble (US, 1889-1953)
Astronomer and cosmologist. The expansion of the universe. The existence of other galaxies. Hubble’s Law. The Hubble constant. The Realm of the Nebulae (1935).
A photograph of Edwin Hubble.
Tim Berners-Lee (UK: England, 1955- )
Computer scientist. The World Wide Web.
Tim Berners-Lee in 2008.
On 7 lists
Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630)
Mathematician and astronomer. The laws of planetary motion. Rudolphine Tables. New Astronomy (1609). The Harmony of the World (1619). Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae (1617-1621).
A 1610 portrait of Johannes Kepler.
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (UK: Northern Ireland, 1824-1907)
Physicist, mathematician and engineer. Electricity and magnetism. The second law of thermodynamics. Absolute zero.
A photograph of Lord Kelvin.
Linus Pauling (US, 1901-1994)
Chemist, biochemist, quantum chemist and molecular biologist. Atomic structure. Chemical bonds. Protein architecture. The Nature of the Chemical Bond (1960).
(Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954)
A photograph of Linus Pauling.
On 6 lists
Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (Persia, c. 980-1037 CE)
Philosopher, physician, astronomer, geographer, geologist, psychologist, physicist and mathematician. Medicine. The scientific method.
Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna.
On 5 lists
Euclid (Ancient Greece: Egypt, fl. 300 BCE)
Mathematician. Geometry. The Elements (c. 300 BCE).
This statue of Euclid at Oxford University Museum of Natural History, UK was created by Joseph Durham between 1835 and 1877.
Andreas Vesalius (Hapsburg Netherlands, now Belgium, 1514-1564)
Physician and anatomist. Human anatomy. De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543).
An engraved portrait of Andreas Vesalius taken from his 1543 treatise.
René Descartes (France, 1596-1650)
Philosopher, mathematician and philosopher of science. The scientific method. Analytic geometry. Calculus. The law of refraction. La Géométrie (1637). Discourse on Method (1637).
A late 17th Century copy of Franz Hals’ 1649 portrait of René Descartes, now in the Louvre in Paris.
Rachel Carson (US, 1907-1964)
Marine biologist and conservationist. Effect of pesticides. The Sea Around Us (1951). Silent Spring (1962). The Sense of Wonder (1965).
A 1940 photograph of Rachel Carson.
Hippocrates of Cos (Ancient Greece, c. 460-c. 370 BCE)
Physician and philosopher of medicine. Clinical medicine (attrib.). Hippocratic oath (attrib.). Hippcratic Corpus (attrib.).
A replica of a Greek bust of Hippocrates from about 150 CE.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (The Netherlands, 1632-1723)
Microbiologist. Bacteria and other microorganisms.
A portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek by Jan Verkolje from between 1670 and 1693. It is located in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden.
Benjamin Franklin (US, 1706-1790)
Physicist, chemist, geographer, oceanographer, meteorologist and statistician. Electricity and lightning. The Gulf Stream. Bifocal lenses.
A 1785 portrait of Benjamin Franklin wearing his bifocal lenses by Charles Wilson Peale.
Christiaan Huygens (The Netherlands, 1629-1695)
Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, horologist and probabilist. Telescopes. The law of refraction. The wave theory of light. The rings and moon of Saturn. The pendulum clock.
A 1671 portrait of Christiaan Huygens by Caspar Netscher.
Henry Cavendish (England, 1731-1810)
Experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. The composition of air. The properties of gases. The synthesis of water. Electrical attraction and repulsion. The density of the Earth.
Pierre-Simon Laplace (France, 1749-1827)
Mathematician, astronomer and statistician. Laplace’s equation. Probability and statistics. Black holes. Determinants. The Young-Laplace equation. The speed of sound.
Carl Friedrich Gauss (Germany, 1777-1855)
Mathematician, astronomer and geophysicist. Number theory. Algebra. Ceres. The heliotrope. Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801).
An 1840 portrait of Carl Friedrich Gauss by Christian Albrecht Jensen.
Alexander Graham Bell (UK: Scotland/US/Canada, 1847-1922)
Inventor, engineer and deaf educator. The telephone. The photophone. The metal detector.
A photograph of Alexander Graham Bell taken between 1914 and 1919.
Heinrich Hertz (Germany, 1857-1894)
Physicist. Electromagnetic radiation. Photoelectric effect. Hertz’s principle of least curvature.
A photograph of Heinrich Hertz.
Barbara McClintock (US, 1902-1992)
Biologist. Cytogenetics. Gene transposition. Role of telomere and centromere. (Nobel Prize, Physiology/Medicine 1983)
A 1947 photograph of Barbara McClintock.
E.O. Wilson (US, 1929- )
Biologist, conservationist, sociobiologist and mymecologist. Ant behavior. Sociobiology. The Insect Societies (1971). Sociobiology (1975). The Ants (with Bert Holldobler) (1990).
On 3 lists
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ancient Greece, c. 190-c. 120 BCE)
Astronomer, geographer and mathematician. Trigonometry. The equinoxes. Latitude and longitude. The classification of stars.
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmi (Persia, 780-850 CE)
Mathematician, astronomer and geographer. The Hindu-Arabic number system. Algebra. Geography. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing (820 CE).
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (Germany, 1646-1716)
Philosopher and mathematician. Differential and integral calculus. Law of Continuity. Transcendental Law of Homogeneity. Mechanical calculators.
A portrait of Gottfried Leibniz by Christoph Bernhard Francke.
Edmond Halley (England, 1656-1742)
Astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist and physicist. The nature of comets. Astronomical measurements.
A portrait of Edmond Halley by Godfrey Kneller, c. 1721.
James Watt (GB: Scotland, 1736-1819)
Inventor, engineer and chemist. Steam engine. Horsepower.
A 1792 portrait of James Watt by Carl Frederik von Breda, now in the National Portrait Gallery, London.
William Herschel (Germany/GB, 1738-1822)
Astronomer, physicist and biologist. The planet Uranus and two moons. Two moons of Saturn. Infrared radiation. Coral.
A 1785 portrait of William Herschel by Lemuel Francis Abbott.
Edward Jenner (England, 1749-1823)
Physician, immunologist and biologist. Vaccination.
A portrait of Edward Jenner by James Northcote, from between 1803 and 1823, which is now in the National Portrait Gallery in London.
Charles Babbage (UK: England, 1791-1871)
Mathematician, mechanical engineer and inventor. Calculating machines: the difference engine and the programmable analytical calculator.
An 1860 photograph of Charles Babbage.
Robert Bunsen (Germany, 1811-1899)
Chemist. Spectrochemical analysis. Discovered caesium and rubidium (with Gustav Kirchhoff). Bunsen burner (with Peter Desaga). Organoarsenic chemistry. Carbon-zinc electrochemical cell.
An undated photo of Robert Bunsen.
Robert Koch (Germany, 1843-1910)
Physician, microbiologist and bacteriologist. The bacteria causing anthrax, tuberculosis and cholera. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1905)
A photograph of Robert Koch.
Paul Ehrlich (Germany, 1854-1915)
Physician and immunologist. The magic bullet theory. Blood cells. Diphtheria. Chemotherapy. The side-chain theory. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1908)
Fritz Haber (Germany, 1868-1934)
Chemist. Haber process. Born-Haber Cycle (with Max Born). Fertilizer. Haber-Weiss reaction. (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918)
A photograph of Fritz Haber.
Paul Dirac (UK: England, 1902-1984)
Theoretical physicist. Quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. The Dirac equation. Quantum field theories. Magnetic monopoles.
(Nobel Prize in Physics 1933)
Maria Goeppert-Mayer (Germany/Poland/US, 1906-1972)
Physicist. Two-proton absorption. Nuclear shell structure. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1963)
A 1963 photograph of Maria Goeppert-Mayer.
Richard Feynman (US, 1918-1988)
Theoretical physicist. Quantum electrodynamics. The path integral formulation. Feynman diagrams. Supercooled liquid helium. Weak decay. The Feynman Lectures on Physics (1963). (Nobel Prize in Physics 1965)
Gertrude B. Elion (US, 1918-1999)
Biochemist and pharmacologist. Purines. Immunosuppressive and antiviral drugs. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1988)
On 2 lists
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (Iraq/Egypt, c. 965 CE – c. 1040)
Physicist, astronomer and mathematician. Scientific method. Visual perception. Alhazen’s problem, Catoptrics. Book of Optics. Doubts Concerning Ptolemy.
An artist’s rendering of Ibn al-Haytham.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (Germany/Netherlands, 1686-1736)
Physicist, inventor and scientific instrument maker. Thermometry. Mercury-in-glass thermometer. Fahrenheit scale.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.
Anders Celsius (Sweden, 1701-1744)
Astronomer, physicist and mathematician. Aurora borealis. Brightness of stars. The shape of the earth. Celsius temperature scale.
A painting of Anders Celsius by Olof Arenius.
Charles Messier (France, 1730-1817)
Astronomer. Messier catalog. Comets.
A portrait of Charles Messier by Nicolas Ansiaume from c. 1770.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia) (Italy, 1736-1813)
Mathematician and astronomer. Calculus of variations. Lagrange multipliers. Variation of parameters. Group theory. Lagrangian points. Lagrangian mechanics. Mécanique analytique,
A portrait of Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (Jean-Baptiste de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck) (France, 1744-1829)
Biologist and naturalist. Invertebrates. Lamarckian evolution. Philosophie Zoologique.
An 1802 portrait of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck by Charles Thévenin.
Caroline Herschel (Germany/GB, 1750-1848)
Astronomer. Comets. New General Catalogue.
A print of an 1829 portrait of Caroline Herschel by M.F. Tielemann.
Joseph Fourier (France, 1768-1830)
Mathematician and physicist. Fourier series. Fourier transform. Fourier’s law of conduction. Fourier-Motzkin elimination. The greenhouse effect. The Analytical Theory of Heat.
A drawing of Joseph Fourier, c. 1820.
Alexander von Humboldt (Germany, 1769-1859)
Geographer, geologist, biologist, meteorologist and biogeographer. The Jurassic Period. The Humboldt Current.
An 1843 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by Joseph Karl Stieler.
Sir Humphrey Davy (GB, 1778-1829)
Chemist and inventor. Electrolysis. Davy lamp. Electrochemistry. Potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium, boron, chlorine, iodine. Nitrous oxide. On Some Chemical Agencies of Electricity.
A portrait of Sir Humphrey Davy by Thomas Phillips.
Christian Doppler (Austria, 1803-1853)
Mathematician, physicist and astronomer. The Doppler effect. Binary stars.
A photograph (or daguerreotype?) of Christian Doppler.
Justus von Liebig (Germany, 1803-1873)
Chemist. Organic chemistry. Fertilizer. Law of the Minimum. Liebig condenser. Nutrition theory. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie (now Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie).
Justus von Liebig.
Sir William Rowan Hamilton (Ireland, 1805-1865)
Mathematician, astronomer and physicist. Hamiltonian mechanics. Quaternions. Geometrical optics. Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Icosian calculus. Hamilton’s principal function. The hodograph. Elements of Quaternions.
Photographic portrait of Sir William Rowan Hamilton.
Julius Robert Mayer (Germany, 1814-1878)
Physician, chemist and physicist. Thermodynamics. Law of conservation of energy. Oxidation.
A photograph (or daguerreotype) of Julius Robert Mayer by Friedrich Berrer.
Karl Weierstrass (Germany, 1815-1897)
Mathematician. Intermediate Value Theorem. Weierstrass function. (ε, δ)-definition of limit. Weierstrass–Erdmann condition. Weierstrass theorems. Bolzano–Weierstrass theorem.
Hermann von Helmholtz (Germany, 1821-1894)
Physician and physicist. Conservation of energy. Vortex dynamics. Ophthalmoscope. Helmholtz resonator.
Hermann von Helmholtz.
Elizabeth Blackwell (UK/US, 1821-1910)
Physician and educator. Medical education. Women’s health. The Laws of Life with Special Reference to the Physical Education of Girls.
Francis Galton (UK: England, 1822-1911)
Psychologist, anthropologist, geographer, meteorologist, and statistician. Eugenics. Correlation and regression. Fingerprinting. Psychometrics. The Galton Whistle.
A photograph of Francis Galton from the 1850s.
Gustav R. Kirchhoff (Germany, 1824-1887)
Physicist. Spectroscopy. Kirchhoff’s circuit laws. Black-body radiation. Kirchhoff’s law of thermochemistry.
A photograph of Gustav Kirchhoff.
Bernhard Riemann (Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann) (Germany, 1826-1866)
Mathematician. Riemannian geometry. Riemann integral. Riemann surfaces. Riemann hypothesis. On the hypotheses which underlie geometry.
An 1863 photo of Bernhard Riemann.
Ivan Pavlov (Russia, 1849-1936)
Physiologist. Classical conditioning. The conditioned reflex. Transmarginal inhibition. Behavior modification.
Henri Becquerel (France, 1852-1908)
Physicist and chemist. Radioactivity. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1903)
A photograph of Henri Becquerel.
William Ramsay (UK: Scotland, 1852-1916)
Chemist. The noble gases. (Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904)
Albert Michelson (Germany/Poland/US, 1852-1931)
Physicist. Speed of light. Michelson-Morley experiment. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1907)
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (Spain, 1852 – 1934)
Neuroscientist and pathologist. Neuroscience. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1906)
A photograph of Santiago Ramón y Cajal.
Rudolf Diesel (Germany, 1858-1913)
Inventor and mechanical engineer. Diesel engine.
David Hilbert (Germany, 1862-1943)
Mathematician. Hilbert’s basis theorem. Hilbert’s axioms. Einstein-Hilbert action. Hilbert spaces. Hilbert’s problems. Hilbert’s program. Grundlagen der Mathematik.
Guglielmo Marconi (Italy, 1874-1937)
Inventor and electrical engineer. Radio. Marconi’s law. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1909)
Guglielmo Marconi shown with an early radio in 1896.
Lise Meitner (Austria/Sweden, 1878-1968)
Physicist. Nuclear fission.
A photograph of Lise Meitner.
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (India, 1888-1970)
Physicist. Raman scattering. The Raman effect. Quantum photo spin. Acoustics. Raman spectroscopy. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1930)
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman.
James Chadwick (UK, 1891-1974)
Physicist. The neutron. The atomic bomb.
Leo Szilard (Hungary/Germany/US, 1898-1964)
Physicist and inventor. Nuclear chain reaction. Linear accelerator. Cyclotron. Electron microscope. Szilard-Chalmers effect. Absorption refrigerator. Chemostat.
John von Neumann (Hungary/US, 1903-1957)
Mathematician, physicist, economist, computer scientist and statistician. Continuous geometry. Measure theory. Lattice theory. Quantum mechanics. Game theory. Operator theory. The Ergodic theorem. Thermonuclear weapons. Computers. Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele (1928). Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (1944).
A photograph of John von Neumann from the 1940s.
Konrad Lorenz (Austria, 1903-1957)
Zoologist, ethologist and ornithologist. Animal behavior (ethology). Imprinting. On Aggression. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1973)
Konrad Lorenz with greylag geese.
Hans Bethe (Germany/US, 1906-2005)
Nuclear physicist and astrophysicist. Quantum mechanics. Atomic nuclei. Stellar nucleosynthesis. Cosmic rays. Hydrogen energy levels. (Nobel Prize in Physics 1967)
Rita Levi-Montalcini (Italy, 1909-2012)
Neurobiologist. Nerve growth factor. Mast cells. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1986)
Wernher von Braun (Germany/US, 1912-1977)
Aerospace engineer and space architect. Rocket science. V-2 rocket. Intermediate-range ballistic missile. Saturn V. Marshall Space Flight Center.
Wernher von Braun with a model of a V-2 rocket.
Noam Chomsky (US, 1928- )
Cognitive scientist, linguist, logician and philosopher. Transformational grammar. Universal grammar. Generative grammar. Chomsky hierarchy. Syntactic Structures (1957).
Peter Higgs (UK, 1929- )
Physicist. Mass of subatomic particles. Higgs mechanism. Higgs boson. Higgs field. Broken symmetry. (Nobel Prize in Physics 2013)
A 2013 photograph of Peter Higgs.
Roger Penrose (UK: England, 1931- )
Physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science. Moore-Penrose inverse. Penrose triangle. Penrose-Hawking singularity theorems. Penrose tilings. Big Bang. Consciousness.
Carl Sagan (US, 1934-1996)
Astronomer, astrophysicist, cosmologist and educator. Surface temperature of Venus. Liquid on Europa. Organic material on Titan. Extraterrestrial life. Creating amino acids. The Cosmic Connection (1973). Cosmos (1985).
Stephen Jay Gould (US, 1941-2002)
Paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and science historian. Punctuated equilibrium. Land snails. Evolutionary theory. The Mismeasure of Man (1981). Wonderful Life (1989).
Stephen Jay Gould and friend.
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (Germany, 1942- )
Biologist. Genetic control of embryonic development. Toll genes. (Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine 1995)
A 2008 photograph of Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard.
Mae Jemison (US, 1956- )
Engineer, physician and astronaut. Space shuttle mission specialist, STS-47 (1992).
A 1992 photograph of Dr. Mae Jemison.